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    • In middle-income countries, nearly half of all people live to the age of 70 and chronic diseases are the major killers, just as they are in high-income countries. Unlike in high-income countries, however, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS and road traffic accidents also are leading causes of death.

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    Did You Know?
    1. One of major factors caused the cardiovascular disease is higher levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Cholesterol and triglycerides are necessary for our life. While cholesterol is essential for body to work properly, triglycerides provide the fuel needed for body cells to function. Total cholesterol (TC) is an estimated measure bad cholesterol (LDL), good cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides. TC = LDL + HDL + (Triglycerides/5). Goal: less than 200 mg/DL for TC. LDL, or bad cholesterol, carried cholesterol to tissues in your body. Higher levels of LDL in your blood mean that cholesterol is being stick to your artery walls. The arteries may develop a fatty buildup called atherosclerosis. Goal: less than 100 mg/dL for LDL. HDL, or good cholesterol, carried cholesterol away tissues in your body. Higher levels of HDL in your blood mean that cholesterol is being carried away from artery walls to the liver and then eliminated from the body. Goal: greater than 60 mg/dL for HDL. Triglycerides are another fatty substance in the blood. Higher levels of triglycerides in your blood mean larger thickening of the artery walls, which causes higher risk of stroke, heart attack and heart disease. Goal: less than 150 mg/dL for Triglycerides. Some commonly prescribed medications lowering your cholesterol are: Crestor, Lescol, Lipitor, Pravachol and Zocor.
    2. The first heart transplant and subsequent ongoing research in cardiac transplantation at the University of Cape Town's Groote Schuur Hospital, where Christiaan Barnard with his team performed the world’s first human-to-human heart transplant operation on 3 December 1967. The first heart transplant patient survived only 18 days, four of first 10 patients survived for more than one year, two living for 13 and 23 years. Forty-nine consecutive heterotopic heart transplants were performed in Cape Town between 1974 and 1983, with moderately good results for that era; three of the first five patients of this 49-patient group survived more than 10 years.
    3. Dr. Robert Jarvik implants a permanent artificial heart, the Jarvik 7, into retired dentist Barney Clark at the University of Utah on December 2, 1982. The heart, powered by an external compressor, keeps Dr. Clark alive for 112 days. The next several implantations of the Jarvik-7 heart were conducted by Humana, a large health care insurance company. The second patient, William J. Schroeder, survived 620 days.
    4. In 1953 Dr. John H. Gibbon (September 29, 1903 – February 5, 1973) an American surgeon, performs the first successful open heart surgery in which the blood is artificially circulated and oxygenated by a heart-lung machine. Dr. Gibbon died in 1973, ironically from a heart attack, while playing tennis.
    5. Dr. Norman Edward Shumway (February 9, 1923 – February 10, 2006) was a pioneer of heart surgery at Stanford University. Norman Shumway is widely regarded as the father of heart transplantation; he successfully transplants a heart into 54-year-old steelworker Mike Kasperak, who survives for 14 days in 1968.
    6. Dr. Bruce Reitz performed the first successful the world's first combined heart and lung transplant in a landmark in 1981 on Mary Gohlke at Stanford Hospital.
    7. Stroke is the number three killer in the US, affecting almost 800,000 people each year. Top risks for a stroke include high-fat diet, being single, being unhappy, being obese, smoking, and being born in the wrong demographic.
    8. There are three types of muscles in the human body: cardiac, smooth and skeletal. Cardiac muscle makes up the wall of the heart. Smooth muscles make up the walls of the intestine, the uterus, blood vessels, and internal muscles of the eye. Skeletal muscles are attached to the bones; contraction of the skeletal muscles helps limbs and other body parts move.
    9. The hardest working muscle is the heart. It pumps out 2 ounces (71 grams) of blood at every heartbeat. Daily the heart pumps at least 2,500 gallons (9,450 liters) of blood. The heart has the ability to beat over 3 billion times in a person’s life.
    10. About 500,000 heart stent procedures are performed each year in the United States, and the researchers estimate that about a fifth of those are for people with stable heart disease. Of those, about a quarter — or an estimated 23,000 procedures — are for people without any chest pain.
    11. A stent is placed in a weak artery to improve blood flow and help prevent the artery from bursting, but it is not better at preventing a heart attack or prolonging survival than lifestyle changes, such as exercising and taking statins to lower cholesterol
    12. More than 400 million people have cardiovascular illness worldwide; about 18 million people around the world died from heart disease in 2015. Those diseases were highest in countries across sub-Saharan Africa, Central Asia, and eastern and central Europe. Central and eastern Europe also had high heart disease-driven death rates, alongside Iraq, Afghanistan and several island nations in the South Pacific. The lowest heart disease incidence was found in Singapore, Japan, South Korea, Chile and Argentina. Risk factors for heart disease, like high blood pressure, poor diet, high cholesterol, tobacco smoking, excessive alcohol use and obesity, are common throughout most of the world.
    13. Cardiovascular diseases (CDVs) are the number one cause of death worldwide and accounts for 30% of all deaths, more people die annually from CVDs than from any other cause. An estimated 17.9 million people died from CVDs in 2016, representing 31% of all global deaths. Of these deaths, 85% are due to heart attack and stroke. Over three quarters of CVD deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries. South Asians (from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) with around 2 billion people comprise 60% of the world’s heart disease cases, even though they make up only a quarter of the planet’s population. Asian descent, a growing population of about 5.4 million, have disproportionately higher risk of stroke, heart attacks and other cardiovascular ailments that are not explained by widely known risk factors, such as high blood pressure, diabetes or smoking.
    14. Most cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by addressing behavioral risk factors such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol using population-wide strategies. A family history of early heart disease is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Over time, unhealthy lifestyle habits increase higher risk of coronary heart disease because they can lead to plaque buildup in the heart’s blood vessels. These include being physically inactive, not getting enough good quality sleep, smoking tobacco or long-term exposure to secondhand smoke, stress, and unhealthy eating patterns.
    15. Coronary heart disease is a type of heart disease that develops when the arteries of the heart cannot deliver enough oxygen-rich blood to the heart. Coronary heart disease is often caused by the buildup of plaque, a waxy substance, inside the lining of larger coronary arteries. This buildup can partially or totally block blood flow in the large arteries of the heart. The risk of coronary heart disease goes up with the number of risk factors and how serious they are. Some risk factors such as high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol can be changed through heart-healthy lifestyle changes. Other risk factors, such as sex, older age, family history and genetics, and race and ethnicity, cannot be changed. The risk for coronary heart disease starts to increase around age 45 for men and 55 for women. People who deal with toxins, radiation, or other hazards, have a lot of stress at work, sit for long periods, work more than 55 hours a week, work long, irregular, or night shifts that affect their sleep, have at higher risk of coronary heart disease.
    16. Over 65% of patients who experience a myocardial infarction (heart attack) during or shortly after non-cardiac surgery do not have ischemic symptoms.
    17. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally; most cardiovascular disease affects older adults. Cardiovascular diseases caused 17.9 million deaths (32.1%) worldwide in 2015, up from 12.3 million (25.8%) in 1990. In the United States 11% of people between 20 and 40 have cardiovascular disease, while 37% between 40 and 60, 71% of people between 60 and 80, and 85% of people over 80 have cardiovascular disease. The average age of death from coronary artery disease in the developed world is around 80 while it is around 68 in the developing world. Cardiovascular disease onset is typically seven to ten years earlier in men as compared to women; cardiovascular disease symptoms may be different for men and women; men are more likely to have chest pain; women are more likely to have other symptoms along with chest discomfort, such as shortness of breath, nausea and extreme fatigue.
    18. There are many risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which include age, gender, tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, obesity, genetic predisposition and family history of cardiovascular disease, raised blood pressure (hypertension), raised blood sugar (diabetes mellitus), raised blood cholesterol (hyperlipidemia), undiagnosed celiac disease, psychosocial factors, poverty and low educational status, and air pollution.
    19. Heart attacks are about three times more likely to occur in the morning, when blood pressure and platelet activity are typically at their highest levels. Taking a daily aspirin helps thin the blood and prevent platelets from clumping, lowering the likelihood of heart attacks and stroke. However, aspirin users were about 30 percent more likely to have a serious gastrointestinal bleeding event, a side effect of frequent aspirin use.
    20. Low levels of HDL (the “good” cholesterol) appear connected to many health risks, not just heart disease; LDL cholesterol reduction with drugs such as statins has been demonstrated to reduce cardiovascular risk. People with type-2 diabetes are more likely than the general population to develop cardiovascular disease and have lower levels of heart-protective HDL cholesterol. Exercise and a heart healthy diet are the way to go and might decrease some of the health risks seen in people with low HDL cholesterol levels.
    21. A highly anticipated trial results show that invasive procedures, stents and bypass surgery are no more effective than drugs for stable heart disease, these should be used more sparingly in patients with stable heart disease and the decision to use them should be less rushed. The ability to implant stents using a catheter inserted through blood vessels in the arm or groin have been clearly demonstrated to save lives in people who are suffering from a heart attack; however, as heart medicines such as statins have improved, there has been active debate about whether stents and other invasive procedures are more effective for people who aren’t in the throes of a heart attack but have stable heart disease.
    22. Low cholesterol may help prevent cancer - Men with cholesterol levels lower than 200 have a lower risk of developing the the prostate cancer.
    23. Heart disease or cardiovascular disease (CDV), which affects more than 1 in 3 adults, is responsible for 35.3 percent of all deaths in the U.S. Today, the chance of dying in few days immediately after of a heart attack is around 6 percent. CDV deaths declined by 26.4 percent from 1995 to 2005. In 1994, it was about 10 percent. In 1984, it was 19 percent. In the 1960s, it was 30 to 40 percent. The lifetime risk of developing coronary artery disease after age 40 is more than 50 percent for men without symptoms.
    24. Cardiovascular disease (CDV) killed 864,480 American in 2005; 151,000 of CDV deaths were under age 65. 16.8 million Americans had a heath attack or angina; 6.5 million Americans had a stroke; 5.7 million live with heart failure; 309,000 Americans died from sudden heart attack.
    25. About 6 million people each year go to hospitals with chest pain; however, only a small fraction are truly having a heart attack. CT scans are increasingly used to diagnose heart attack, but they put out a lot of radiation, which may raise a person's chances of developing cancer.
    26. About 10,000 blood centers in 168 countries report collecting a total of 108 million blood donations globally, of which around 50% is collected in the high-income countries, home to 18% of the world’s population.
    27. As per American Heart Association, 1,314,000 angioplasties, in which a plastic catheter is snaked into the blocked artery and a small balloon is inflated, opening the vessel, were done in the United States in 2006. Of these 1,313,000 were percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs).  855,000 men and 459,000 women had angioplasties. 448,000 cardiac revascularizations (also known as coronary artery bypass graft or CABG operations) were done in the United States in 2006. CABG was performed on 323,000 men and 125,000 women. In 2007, American cardiologists performed 721,000 angioplasties. Patients were often given out of the hospital a year of clopidogrel (Plavix) and a life time of stain, ACE inhibitor, beta blockers and aspirin. The cost of a heart attack treatment was about $5,700 in 1977 to $54,400 in 2007.
    28. Heart disease is the number one killer of American of all ages while cancer is the number one killer of Americans under 85. 46% of women and 22% of men heart attack survivors will be disabled with heart failure within six years. 435,000 American women have heart attacks annually; 42% die within 1 year; which kill six times as many women as breast cancer.
    29. Cancer was the second leading cause of death, after heart disease, in the United States in 2020. In 2020, there were 602,350 cancer deaths; 284,619 were among females and 317,731 among males.
      • 136,084 people died of lung cancer (63,135 females and 72,949 males).
      • 51,869 people died of colorectal cancer (23,826 females and 28,043 males).
      • 46,774 people died of pancreatic cancer (22,495 females and 24,279 males).
      • 42,275 females died of breast cancer.
      • 32,707 males died of prostate cancer.
      • 28,227 people died of liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer (9,591 females and 18,636 males).
    30. Late effects of cancer treatment can come from any of the main types of cancer treatment: chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radiation therapy, surgery, targeted therapy and immunotherapy.
      • For the cancer treatment using chemotherapy, late effects may include dental problems, early menopause, eye problems, hair loss, hearing loss, heart problems, increased risk of other cancers, infertility, loss of taste, lung disease, nerve damage, osteoporosis (bone loss), and reduced lung capacity.
      • For the cancer treatment using hormone therapy, late effects may include blood clots, hormonal change, hot flashes, increased risk of other cancers, menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, and sexual side effects.
      • For the cancer treatment using radiation therapy, late effects may include cavities and tooth decay, dry mouth, early menopause, hair loss, heart and vascular problems, hypothyroidism, increased risk of other cancers, increased risk of stroke, infertility, intestinal problems, lung disease, lymphedema, memory problems, and osteoporosis.
      • Late side effects from surgery depend on the type of cancer and the surgery location in the body; lymphedema is most commonly caused by the removal of or damage to a lymph node as a part of this cancer treatment.
      • Late effects are unknown for the cancer treatment with targeted therapy or immunotherapy.
    31. Cancer, an incurable disease, is a deadly terminal disease known worldwide. There are over 200 different types of cancers. While 1 in every 3 women in her lifetime, is likely to die because of breast cancer, colo-rectal cancer, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, and lung and bronchial cancer, 1 in every 2 men in his life time, mostly dies because of lung & bronchus cancer, prostate cancer, colon & rectum cancer, pancreas cancer, and liver & intrahepatic bile duct cancer.
    32. In the US, cancer usually develops in older people; 86% of all cancers are diagnosed in people 50 years of age or older. Lifetime risk refers to the probability that an individual will develop or die from cancer over the course of a lifetime. The lifetime risk of developing cancer is 42% in men and 38% in women.
    33. Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs in the prostate, which is a small walnut-shaped gland in males that produces the seminal fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. Prostate cancer is diagnosed with a biopsy. The most common reason for a man to undergo a prostate biopsy is due to an elevated prostate-specific antigen level (PSA), determined by a blood test. It's not clear what causes prostate cancer. Prostate cancer may cause no signs or symptoms in its early stages; when it's more advanced, signs and symptoms may include trouble urinating, decreased force in the stream of urine blood in the urine and the semen, and/or erectile dysfunction.
    34. Prostate cancer, which is the most commonly diagnosed type of cancer, is the second leading cause of cancer in men. One in 8 men has been diagnosed with prostate cancer at some point in their lives. Prostate cancer incidence increases with age, the older men are, the greater their chance of developing this disease. Around 60% of all prostate cancers are diagnosed in men over the age of 65 (1 in 55 for ages 50 to 59, 1 in 20 for ages 60 to 69, and 1 in 12 for ages 70 and older).
    35. Prostate cancer is very common for men; more than 240,000 U.S. men is diagnosed with prostate cancer every year, and over 30,000 die a year.
    36. Many cancers are found too late and most of them show no symptoms until later stages, and treatment options may be limited and the outcomes are often deadly. Cancer blood tests and other laboratory tests may help doctors make a cancer diagnosis. Common blood tests used to diagnose cancer include
      • Complete Blood Count (CBC) (used to detect if too many or too few of a type of blood cell or abnormal cells are found in blood);
      • Blood Protein Testing (used to detect certain abnormal immune system proteins (immunoglobulins) that are sometimes elevated in people with multiple myeloma;
      • Tumor Marker Tests (used to detect chemicals made by tumor cells in blood);
      • and
      • Circulating Tumor Cell Tests (used to detect cells that have broken away from an original cancer site and are floating in the bloodstream).
    37. The colon and rectum make up the large intestine (or large bowel), which is part of the digestive system, also called the gastrointestinal (GI) system. Colon cancer, which is a type of cancer that begins in the large intestine (colon), is sometimes called colorectal cancer (CRC), a term that combines colon cancer and rectal cancer, which begins in the rectum. CRC, which typically affects 33% of older adults (male or female), usually begins as small, noncancerous (benign) clumps of cells called polyps that form on the inside of the colon. Over time some of these polyps can become CRC. Finding and removing polyps can prevent CRC. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread. CRC is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the US; 1 out of 20 people will develop CRC in their lifetime. CRC often has no obvious signs or symptoms; when symptoms appear, they'll likely vary, depending on the cancer's size and location in the large intestine. If CRC develops, many treatments are available to help control it, including surgery, radiation therapy and drug treatments, such as chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapy. When detected early people with CRC have a greater than 90% 5-year survival rate.
    38. A multi-cancer early detection test, Galleri, developed by Grail, Inc., an American healthcare company, can detect over 50 types of cancers — over 45 of which lack recommended screening today — with a low false positive rate, through a single blood draw. The Galleri test looks for signals present in the blood that may be associated with cancer at the time of the blood draw. If a cancer signal is detected, Galleri results can point to where in the body the cancer is coming from. However, the Galleri test does not diagnose cancer and not all cancers may be detected in the blood. A bone marrow biopsy, which involves removing a small sample of the bone marrow inside bones for testing, may also help confirm a diagnosis of a blood cancer.
    39. Cancer treatments and cancer can cause side effects, which are problems that occur when treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. These may include: anemia, appetite loss, bleeding and bruising (thrombocytopenia), constipation, celirium, ciarrhea, edema (swelling), fatigue, fertility issues in men, fertility issues in women, flu-like symptoms, hair loss (alopecia), infection and neutropenia, lymphedema, memory or concentration problems, mouth and throat problems, nausea and vomiting, nerve problems (peripheral neuropathy), immunotherapy and organ-related inflammation, pain, sexual health issues in men, sexual health issues in women, skin and nail changes, sleep problems and insomnia, and urinary and bladder problems.
    40. Liver cancer is the 6th most common cancer in the world, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 90% of primary liver cancer cases. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women, and is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. Almost any cancer, such as, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer, lung cancer, melanoma, pancreatic cancer, and stomach cancer, can spread to the liver.
    41. Most cases of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), occur in people who already have signs and symptoms of chronic liver disease, such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection. The risk of HCC for people with type 2 diabetes is greater (from 2.5 to 7.1 times the non-diabetic risk) depending on the duration of diabetes and treatment protocol. HCC often doesn’t show symptoms until the advanced stages of the disease, but some people may experience abdominal pain or tenderness, easy bruising or bleeding, enlarged abdomen, unexplained weight loss, and jaundice. HCC remains associated with a high mortality rate, in part related to initial diagnosis commonly at an advanced stage of disease.
    42. Globally, each year over 750,000 people are diagnosed with liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), most often in late stages of the disease. Almost 50% of all cases are diagnosed in China in large part due to the prevalence of hepatitis B and C, fatty foods and obesity, alcohol, and aflatoxin (a carcinogenic mould found in contaminated food, especially rice). There are limited treatments available for people across all stages of liver cancer, and even less if diagnosed at the advanced stage. Despite the high prevalence of HCC, people with the disease still have few options and a low survival rate. In fact, less than 50% of people diagnosed with advanced HCC will survive more than a year after diagnosis. Treatments currently available across different stages of the disease include surgery to remove masses, radiation, liver transplant, transarterial chemoembolisation, chemotherapy, freezing or heating the cancer cells, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
    43. Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much alcohol, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, vaccination against certain infectious diseases, not eating too much processed and red meat, and avoiding too much sunlight exposure. Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths, Another 10% is due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity and drinking alcohol. Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants. The most common types of cancer in males are lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and stomach cancer. In females, the most common types are breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer and cervical cancer. Cancer is the second leading cause of death globally, and was responsible for 8.8 million deaths in 2015. Globally, nearly 1 in 6 deaths is due to cancer. Approximately 70% of deaths from cancer occur in low- and middle-income countries.
    44. In the U.S., each year there are about 56,000 new cases of thyroid cancer, and the majority of those diagnoses are papillary thyroid cancer — the most common type of thyroid cancer. Some thyroid cancer signs and symptoms include a hoarse voice, neck pain, and enlarged lymph nodes. Although as much as 75% of the population will have thyroid nodules, the vast majority are benign. Thyroid cancer can occur in any age group and its aggressiveness increases significantly in older patients. Females are more likely to have thyroid cancer at a ratio of 3:1. Fewer than 1% of all thyroid nodules are malignant (cancerous). A nodule that is cold on scan is more likely to be malignant. However, the majority of these are benign as well. Thyroid cancer does not always cause symptoms; often, the first sign of thyroid cancer is a thyroid nodule. Most thyroid cancers are very curable. In fact, the most common types of thyroid cancer (papillary and follicular thyroid cancer) are the most curable. In younger patients, both papillary and follicular cancers have a more than 97% cure rate if treated appropriately.
    45. Cancer has a major impact on society in the U.S. and across the world. People who have cancer may have questions about how serious their cancer is and the chances of survival. The answer depends on the type of cancer, the stage of the cancer, cancer's grade, age, how healthy they are, and how they respond to treatment. The period of time may be 1 year, 2 years, 5 years, etc. In the U.S. the average number of new cases of cancer is 440 per 100,000 men and woman per year, and the average number of cancer deaths is 163.5 per 100,000 people. In 2018, there were around 1,735,350 new cases of cancer, and 609,640 people died from the disease. In 2017, there were 15,270 children and adolescents ages 1 to 19 were diagnosed with cancer and 1,790 died of the disease. Understanding of cancer prognosis is important. The most common cancers:
    46. Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. Signs and symptoms usually depend on the size and type of cancer.
      • Breast cancer: Lump in breast and axilla associated with or without ulceration or bloody nipple discharge
      • Endometrial cancer: Bleeding per vagina.
      • Cervix cancer: Bleeding after sexual intercourse.
      • Ovarian cancer: Nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal distension, dyspepsia.
      • Lung cancer: Persistent cough, breathlessness, blood in the sputum, hoarseness of voice.
      • Head and neck cancer: Non-healing ulcer or growth, lump in the neck.
      • Brain cancer: Persistent headache, vomiting, loss of consciousness, double vision.
      • Thyroid cancer: Lump in the neck.
      • Oesophageal cancer: Painful swallowing predominantly with solid food, weight loss.
      • Stomach cancer: Vomiting, dyspepsia, weight loss.
      • Colon & rectal cancer: Bleeding per rectum, alteration of bowel habits.
      • Liver cancer: Jaundice, pain and mass in right upper abdomen.
      • Pancreatic cancer: Weight loss, jaundice.
      • Skin cancer: Non-healing ulcer or growth, mole with sudden increase in size or irregular border, induration, or pain.
      • Kidney cancer: Blood in urine, abdominal lump.
      • Bladder cancer: Blood in urine.
      • Prostate cancer: Urgency, hesitancy and frequency while passing urine, bony pain.
      • Testis cancer: Swelling of testis, back pain, dyspnoea.
      • Bone cancer: Pain and swelling of bones.
      • Lymphoma: Fever, weight loss more than 10% body weight in preceding 6 months and drenching night sweats which constitutes the B symptoms, lump in neck, axilla or groin.
      • Blood cancer: Bleeding manifestations including bleeding gums, bleeding from nose, blood in vomitus, blood in sputum, blood stained urine, black coloured stools, fever, lump in neck, axilla, or groin, lump in upper abdomen.
    47. Breast cancer survivors who take aspirin regularly may be less likely to die or have their cancer return. Aspirin has relatively benign adverse effects compared with cancer chemotherapeutic drugs and may also prevent colon cancer, cardiovascular disease, and stroke.
    48. Breast cancer cases could be avoided if you ate less and exercised more.
    49. Cancer is a collection of related diseases in which some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues. Different cancers can require different treatments, like chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or immunotherapy. There are many types of cancer, breast cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, prostate cancer, colon and rectum cancer, melanoma of the skin, bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kidney cancer, renal pelvis cancer, endometrial cancer, leukemia, pancreatic cancer, thyroid cancer, and liver cancer are the most common cancers. There is an estimated 1,740,000 new cases of cancer each year in the United States and around 610,000 people die from the disease.
    50. There are a number of cancer symptoms that men are likely to ignore. These include upset stomach or stomachache; chronic "acid stomach" or feeling full after a small meal; unexplained weight loss; jaundice; wheezing or shortness of breath; chronic cough or chest pain; frequent fevers or infections; difficulty swallowing; chronic heartburn; swelling of facial features; swollen lymph nodes or lumps on the neck; underarm, or groin, excessive bruising or bleeding that doesn't stop; weakness and fatigue; rectal bleeding or blood in stool; bowel problems; difficulty urinating or changes in flow; pain or burning during urination; blood in urine or semen; erection problems; pain, aching, or heaviness in the groin, hips, thighs, or abdomen; testicular swelling or lump; unexplained back pain; scaly or painful nipple or chest, nipple discharge; a sore or skin lump that doesn't heal, becomes crusty, or bleeds easily; and changes in nails.
    51. There are a number of cancer symptoms women are likely to ignore. These include wheezing or shortness of breath; chronic cough or chest pain; swallowing problems or hoarseness; frequent fevers or infections swollen lymph nodes or lumps on the neck, underarm, or groin; bloating or abdominal weight gain -- the "my jeans don't fit" syndrome; feeling full and unable to eat; pelvic or abdominal pain; unusually heavy or painful periods or bleeding between periods; rectal bleeding or blood in stool; upset stomach or stomachache; a red, sore, or swollen breast; nipple changes; excessive bruising or bleeding that doesn't stop; weakness and fatigue; unexplained weight loss; swelling of facial features; a sore or skin lump that doesn't heal, becomes crusty, or bleeds easily; changes in nails; and pain in the back or lower right side.
    52. Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. The most common symptoms are coughing (including coughing up blood), weight loss, shortness of breath, and chest pains. The vast majority (85%) of cases of lung cancer are due to long-term tobacco smoking. More than half of people with lung cancer die within one year of being diagnosed. The lung cancer five-year survival rate (18%) is lower than many other leading cancer types, such as the colon (65%), breast (90%) and prostate (99%). The five-year survival rate for lung cancer is 55% for cases detected when the disease is still localized (within the lungs). However, only 16% of lung cancer cases are diagnosed at an early stage. For distant tumors (spread to other organs) the five-year survival rate is only 4%. Lung cancer occurred in around 1.8 million people globally and resulted in approximate 1.6 million deaths annually. There are around 415,000 Americans living with lung cancer today, and approximately 158,080 die annually. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer is higher for men (51.7 per 100,000 persons) than for women (34.7 per 100,000 persons).
    53. The liver (located in the upper abdomen near the stomach, intestines, gallbladder, and pancreas), is essential for digesting food and ridding the body of toxic substances. It performs storing nutrients, removing waste products and worn-out cells from the blood, filtering and processing chemicals in food, alcohol, and medications, and producing bile that helps digest fats and eliminates waste products.
      • Increased risk for getting liver cancer when a person has symptoms that may include discomfort in the upper abdomen on the right side, a swollen abdomen, a hard lump on the right side just below the rib cage, pain near the right shoulder blade or in the back, yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice), easy bruising or bleeding, unusual tiredness, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite, and/or weight loss for no known reason.
      • The signs of liver disease (may not be liver cancer) may include abdominal pain and swelling, skin and eyes that appear yellowish (jaundice), swelling in the legs and ankles, itchy skin, dark urine color, pale stool color, chronic fatigue, nausea or vomiting, loss of appetite, and/or tendency to bruise easily.
    54. Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue. Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, or a red scaly patch of skin. In those with distant spread of the disease, there may be bone pain, swollen lymph nodes, shortness of breath, or yellow skin. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women; around 246,660 American women are diagnosed with breast cancer each year and over 40,000 die annually. Breast cancer in men is rare; however, around 2,600 American men were diagnosed with breast cancer each year and approximately 440 died annually.
    55. Around 48,330 Americans were diagnosed with oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancer each year and approximately 9,570 died annually.
    56. Colorectal cancer is the No. 2 killer in the US, reports the CDC, claiming more than 50,000 lives in 2013.
    57. Lung, liver, stomach, colorectal and breast cancers cause the most cancer deaths each year worldwide, accounting for 8.2 million deaths in 2012; about 30% of cancer deaths are due to high body mass index, low fruit and vegetable intake, lack of physical activity, tobacco use, alcohol use.
    58. When cancer starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread to lymph nodes or other organs in the body, such as the brain. Cancer from other organs also may spread to the lungs. When cancer cells spread from one organ to another, they are called metastases. The two main types of lung cancer are small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. These categories refer to what the cancer cells look like under a microscope. Non-small cell lung cancer is more common than small cell lung cancer. People with non-small cell lung cancer can be treated with surgery (an operation where doctors cut out cancer tissue), chemotherapy (using special medicines to shrink or kill the cancer), radiation therapy (using high-energy rays (similar to X-rays) to kill the cancer), targeted therapy (using drugs to block the growth and spread of cancer cells), or a combination of these treatments. People with small cell lung cancer are usually treated with radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
    59. Doctors from different specialties often work together to treat lung cancer. Pulmonologists are doctors who are experts in diseases of the lungs. Surgeons are doctors who perform operations. Thoracic surgeons specialize in chest, heart, and lung surgery. Medical oncologists are doctors who treat cancer with medicines. Radiation oncologists are doctors who treat cancers with radiation.
    60. The most common types of cancer that kill men are lung cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, colorectal cancer, and oesophagus cancer.
    61. The most common types of cancer that kill women are breast cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, and cervical cancer; breast, cervical and colorectal cancer can be cured if detected early and treated adequately.
    62. The lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer in the U.S. is: about 1 in 21 (4.7%) for men and 1 in 23 (4.4%) for women.
    63. Most colorectal cancers start as growths in the colon or rectum called polyps. But some screening tests allow doctors to find and remove polyps before they turn into cancer.
    64. Leukemia, a cancer of the blood cells, not only causes the overproduction of white blood cells, which help your body fight infection, but also reduces red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all parts of your body.
    65. Cancers that are most common in children ages 0-14 are acute lymphocytic leukemia (26%), brain and central nervous system (CNS) (21%), neuroblastoma (7%), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (6%).
    66. There are 7.6 million people died of cancer annually - 13% of all deaths worldwide. Lung (1.37 million deaths), stomach (736,000 deaths), liver (695,000 deaths), colorectal/colon (608,000 deaths), breast (458 000 deaths), and cervical cancer (275,000 deaths) caused the most cancer deaths.
    67. The most common types of cancer that kill men are lung, stomach, liver, colorectal and oesophagus and the most common types of cancer that kill women are breast, lung, stomach, colorectal and cervical.
    68. The most common cancers among adolescents ages 15-19 are Hodgkin lymphoma (15%), thyroid carcinoma (11%), brain and central nervous system (CNS) (10%), and testicular germ cell tumors (8%).
    69. The death rate for cervical cancer dropped by 70% between 1955 and 1992 as early detection and screening became more prevalent.
    70. Colon cancer patients may live longer by taking aspirin.
    71. The radiation from a CT scan can increase a child’s cancer risk.
    72. Around 87,000 Americans are diagnosed annually with brain cancer and the median age at diagnosis is 60. An estimated 700,000 Americans are living with a primary brain tumor, of which 69% tumors are benign and 30% tumors are malignant. The average survival rate for all malignant brain tumor patients is 35%. Between 1998 and 2014, there were 78 investigational brain tumor drugs that entered the clinical trial evaluation process; 75 failed. There are 13 approved cancer drugs for use in treatment of brain tumors; of which only 4 drugs and one device were approved by FDA in the past 30 years.
    73. Brain tumor or intracranial neoplasm occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain. There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors. Cancerous tumors can be divided into primary tumors that start within the brain, and secondary tumors that have spread from somewhere else, known as brain metastasis tumors. Secondary or metastatic brain tumors are more common than primary brain tumors with about half of metastases coming from lung cancer. A benign tumor is a mass of cells (tumor) that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue or metastasize. The brain cancer symptoms may include headaches, seizures, problem with vision, vomiting, and mental changes. Primary brain tumors occur in around 250,000 people a year globally; there are around 689,000 Americans having brain tumor, and approximately 78,000 people are diagnosed annually. Brain tumors have the highest per-patient initial cost of care (around $100,000) for any cancer group.
    74. Brain tumors can be deadly, significantly impact quality of life. A tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue that has formed a lump; it’s called a benign tumor if it grows slowly and is self-limiting. Benign tumors need no treatment, but they can become dangerous if they grow large enough to press on vital organs, blood vessels or nerves. A malignant or cancerous tumor, is innately dangerous because its cells can divide uncontrollably and produce virtually immortal daughter cells.
    75. Since the coronavirus first emerged in Wuhan, China, in 2019, according to data compiled by Johns Hopkins University, it has killed more than 487,000,000 people as of October 2021, and more than 239 million cases have been reported. In September 2021, the U.S. death toll surpassed 700,000, and has continued to have the highest cumulative number of confirmed cases and deaths globally. India has accounted for about 1 in 3 of all new confirmed cases, and in May 2021 it set records for the number of new daily deaths with more than 4,500 deaths from COVID-19 reported in a single 24-hour period. The COVID-19 vaccines were developed and rolled out at record speed, billions of doses have been administered around the world, and studies show most have impressive efficacy. China now leads the world in the number of vaccine doses given out, though some other nations have vaccinated a greater share of their population.
    76. In the United States around 221 million doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine have been dispensed as of September 2021, compared with about 150 million doses of Moderna’s vaccine. The Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines rely on the same mRNA platform, and in the initial clinical trials, they had remarkably similar efficacy against symptomatic infection: 95 percent for Pfizer-BioNTech and 94 percent for Moderna. A research conducted by the New England Journal of Medicine, found that the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine had an effectiveness of 88.8 percent, compared with Moderna’s 96.3 percent. A study published by the CDC found that the efficacy of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine against hospitalization fell from 91 percent to 77 percent after a four-month period following the second shot; the Moderna vaccine showed no decline over the same period.
    77. The first COVID-19 vaccines began rolling out less than a year into the pandemic. While vaccine development typically has 5 steps (clinical trials phase 1, phase 2 and phase 3, regulatory approval and manufacturing), and takes one step at a time, which requires 5 years to 15 years to complete, COVID-19 vaccines development has multiple steps happening at once and only takes between 1 year to 2 years for completion. But the COVID-19 vaccines have been held to the same safety standards as any other vaccine — and rigorous clinical trials have proven that they’re safe and effective. Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen, and Oxford Astrazeneca were approved COVID-19 vaccines for use in the US. Studies show that these COVID-19 vaccines are effective at keeping people from getting COVID-19. The other COVID-19 vaccines that do not properly follow the vaccine development procedures, such as Sinovac and Sinopharm, were also recommended for emergency use by WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE).
    78. Around 80% of people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) recovered without needing any specialist treatment. For these people, this new coronavirus caused mild or moderate symptoms, such as fever and cough, that clear up in 2 to 3 weeks. For some people, especially older adults (65 years and older) and people with existing health problems or serious underlying medical conditions (e.g.; chronic lung disease, asthma, heart conditions, cancer, diabetes, renal failure, and liver disease) might be at higher risk for pneumonia and death from COVID-19.
    79. Only about 1 in 6 people who get COVID-19, becomes serious ill and develops difficulty breathing, almost all serious consequences of COVID-19 feature pneumonia. As of 5/14/2020, globally there were over 4,437,442 coronavirus cases and around 301,937 deaths. As of 4/20/2021 the number of deaths from COVID-19 has passed 3 million worldwide, according to John Hopkins University; there have been over 141 million confirmed cases since the pandemic began, with the US, India, and Brazil recording the most infections and over a million deaths between them. The best way to prevent illness is to avoid being exposed to this virus.
    80. During the coronavirus (COVID-19) disease pandemic, some U.S. healthcare officials advised that Americans should not be walking around with masks in public because they can increase their risk of getting coronavirus by wearing a mask if they are not a health care provider. There is no evidence for the claim that masks increase users’ risk of catching the coronavirus. The CDC’s written guidance does not suggest that wearing a mask could increase the risk of catching the virus. A number of Asian countries, such as Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Vietnam, where mask use is mandatory, have reported lower levels of COVID-19 infection than the U.S. had. The reasons have emerged to doubt the wisdom of the guidance, and as a result, after there were over 242,180 coronavirus cases and 5,850+ deaths in the U.S., on April 2, 2020 the CDC revised its guidance that officially advises people to wear masks in public to prevent catching the coronavirus (COVID-19).
    81. A new mysterious, pneumonia-like virus that originated in China in December 2019 spreads through close person-to-person contact. Each infected person seems to spread the virus to about two others, through coughing or sneezing or by leaving germs on a surface that is touched by non-infected people who touch their faces. Coronaviruses range from the common cold to more-severe diseases such as SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome, or MERS. Some coronaviruses, including this new COVID-19, can cause severe symptoms and illnesses, including pneumonia. New COVID-19 illness, patient experienced a range of symptoms including fever (95%), cough (dried: 67.7% or wet: 33.3%), headache (13.6%), fatigue (less than 10%), sore throat (13.9%), nausea (less than 3%), vomiting (less than 3%), diarrhea (less than 3%) and runny nose (less than 5%). It seems to start with a fever, followed by a dry cough and then, after a week, leads to shortness of breath (18.6%). In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death.
    82. Most humans fall into one of four blood groups, A, B, AB or O, and the most common blood groups are O and A. A recent study showed that people with blood type O may be less vulnerable to Covid-19 and have a reduced likelihood of getting severely ill, and people with blood types A, B, or AB may be more likely to be infected with COVID-19 than people with blood type O. The New England Journal of Medicine in June, found genetic data in some Covid-19 patients and healthy people suggesting that those with Type A blood had a higher risk of becoming infected, and those with type O blood were at a lower risk. People with blood groups A may be more likely to require mechanical ventilation, and appear to exhibit greater COVID-19 disease severity than people with blood groups O or B.
    83. SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome)/SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) virus identified in 2003 is thought to be an animal virus from an as-yet-uncertain animal reservoir, perhaps bats, that spread to other animals (civet cats) and first infected humans in the Guangdong province of southern China in 2002. Symptoms are influenza-like and include fever, malaise, myalgia, headache, diarrhea, and shivering (rigors). This epidemic of SARS affected 26 countries and resulted in infecting more than 8,000 people and killing nearly 800 in 2003 during the eight-month outbreak. Transmission of SARS-CoV is primarily from person to person. It appears to have occurred mainly during the second week of illness, which corresponds to the peak of virus excretion in respiratory secretions and stool, and when cases with severe disease start to deteriorate clinically.
    84. Around 60 million people died by the Spanish flu of 1918-’19; as many as 16 million people may have died in India alone. The Asian flu (H2N2) pandemic of 1957-’58 killed 69,800 people in the US and two million worldwide. Another avian strain (H3N2), known as the Hong Kong flu, killed 33,800 people in the US and 700,000 worldwide in 1968-’69. About 300 people around the world were infected by that strain of avian flu (H5N1, also SARS) in 2003 and more than half of them died. As of July 6, 2009, Novel influenza A (H1N1) has infected 94,512 people and killed 429 in 84 countries, of which, there were 33,902 cases, 170 deaths in the U.S. There are approximately 226,000 people are hospitalized each year due to seasonal influenza and 36,000 died in the U.S. As many as 80 million Americans have been infected with H1N1 swine flu, up to 16,000 have been killed and more than 360,000 hospitalized in the U.S. as of 1/15/2010.
    85. In 1748, Jacques Daviel (11 August 1696 – 30 September 1762), a French ophthalmologist, was the first modern European physician to successfully extract cataracts from the eye. In the 1940s Harold Ridley (10 July 1906 – 25 May 2001), an English ophthalmologist, invented the intraocular lens and pioneered intraocular lens surgery for cataract patients, he introduced the concept of implantation of the intraocular lens which permitted more efficient and comfortable visual rehabilitation possible after cataract surgery.
    86. Cataracts are most commonly due to aging, but may also occur due to trauma, radiation exposure, be present from birth, occur following eye surgery, having diabetes, smoking tobacco, or prolonged exposure to sunlight, and alcohol. About 20 million people globally are blind due to cataracts. Cataract removal/surgery is one of the most common operations performed in the United States. It also is one of the safest and most effective types of surgery. In about 90 percent of cases, people who have cataract surgery have better vision afterward.
    87. Cataract surgery (or lens replacement surgery) is the removal of the natural lens of the eye (also called "crystalline lens") that has developed an opacification, which is referred to as a cataract, and its replacement with an intraocular lens. Metabolic changes of the crystalline lens fibers over time lead to the development of the cataract, causing impairment or loss of vision. During cataract surgery, a patient's cloudy natural cataract lens is removed, either by emulsification in place or by cutting it out. An artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is implanted in its place. Over 90% of cataract operations are successful in restoring useful vision, with a low complication rate. Day care, high volume, minimally invasive, small incision phacoemulsification with quick post-op recovery has become the standard of care in cataract surgery all over the world.
    88. The Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System (“Argus II”) is the world’s first approved device intended to restore some functional vision for people suffering from blindness. Argus II is approved for use in the United States and the European Economic Area.
    89. In 2010, there were about 285 million people visually impaired, of whom 39 million were blind; around 82% of people with blindness are over 50 years old and 90% of visually impaired people live in low- and middle-income countries
    90. Early intervention for symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorder is critical for helping families improve outcomes for their children. Children diagnosed with developmental disorders should be identified as children with special health care needs, and chronic-condition management should be initiated. Specific autism screenings are recommended at the same time as typical well-child visits from infancy through school age, and at any age thereafter. Developmental surveillance should be performed if concerns are raised about social acceptance, learning, or behavior. Developmental evaluation is required whenever a child fails to meet any of the following milestones: babbling by 12 months; gesturing (e.g., pointing, waving bye-bye) by 12 months; single words by 16 months; two-word spontaneous (not just echolalic) phrases by 24 months; loss of any language or social skills at any age.
    91. There is inadequate evidence to recommend an electroencephalogram study in all individuals with autism. Reflecting social communication, ADHD, anxiety, food selectivity, and sleeping disorders could provide early signs of autism. Eating and sleeping issues can be identified long before autism is diagnosed. Some children with more typical language skills may not be identified until they enter school and social requirements are greater.
    92. Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, verbal and non-verbal communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior. As of 2010 the rate of autism is estimated at about 1–2 per 1,000 people worldwide, and it occurs four to five times more often in boys than girls; about 1.5% of children in the United States (one in 68) are diagnosed with autism as of 2014, a 30% increase from one in 88 in 2012; around 1 in 100 children in the United Kingdom has autism in 2014. There is no cure for autism; about 20 to 30 percent of children with autism develop epilepsy by the time they reach adulthood.
    93. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. Although autism can be diagnosed at any age, it is said to be a “developmental disorder” because symptoms generally appear in the first two years of life. About 1 in every 68 U.S. children is affected by a ASD. The causes for this increased incidence are not completely understood though a possible connection to childhood vaccines (which has been resoundingly rejected by rigorous scientific studies). Although scientists are still trying to understand why some people develop ASD and others don’t, some risk factors include the child has very low birth weight, a sibling with ASD, older parents, and certain genetic conditions. People with ASD have difficulty with communication and interaction with other people, restricted interests and repetitive behaviors, and symptoms that hurt the person’s ability to function properly in school, work, and other areas of life.
    94. Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills and, eventually, the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. In most people with Alzheimer’s, symptoms first appear in their mid-60s; more than 5 million Americans have Alzheimer’s disease and around 93,500 people died annually (rank #: 7). The time from diagnosis to death varies — as little as 3 or 4 years if the person is older than 80 when diagnosed to as long as 10 or more years if the person is younger.
    95. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia, a general term for memory loss and other cognitive abilities serious enough to interfere with daily life. People with Alzheimer’s have trouble doing everyday things like driving a car, cooking a meal, or paying bills. They may ask the same questions over and over, get lost easily, lose things or put them in odd places, and find even simple things confusing. As the disease progresses, some people become worried, angry, or violent. One in 9 people over age 65 and nearly half of people over 85 have Alzheimer's disease. Of the 5.4 million Americans with Alzheimer's, an estimated 5.2 million people are age 65 and older, and approximately 200,000 people are under age 65.
    96. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia among older adults. Alzheimer's disease and changes in a person's sleeping behavior were linked, people who develop Alzheimer's show changes in sleep years before their memory begins to decline. Memory problems are typically one of the first signs of Alzheimer’s, though initial symptoms may vary from person to person. A decline in other aspects of thinking, such as finding the right words, vision/spatial issues, and impaired reasoning or judgment, may also signal the very early stages of Alzheimer’s disease.
    97. Diabetes affects 30 million American adults and children and 1 in 4 of them don’t know they have it. More than 84 million American adults have prediabetes, and 90% of them don’t know they have it. Diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States. People with the type 1 form of diabetes have an autoimmune disorder and are unable to produce sufficient amounts of the hormone insulin, which is made by the pancreas; type 1 diabetes accounts for about 5% of all diabetes cases. The vast majority of Americans with diabetes have type 2 form of the disorder, in which the body does not manage its insulin levels correctly; type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90% to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. People are at risk for developing prediabetes or type 2 diabetes if they are overweight and age 45 or older, and physically active less than 3 times a week, or if they have a parent, brother, or sister with type 2 diabetes.
    98. Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Most of the food you eat is broken down into sugar (also called glucose) and released into your bloodstream. When your blood sugar goes up, it signals your pancreas to release insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose (blood sugar) get into your body’s cells for use as energy With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not make or use insulin well. Without enough insulin, the glucose stays in your blood. Diabetes can cause serious health problems, such as heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease.
    99. The longer a person has diabetes, the more likely they are to have a stroke.
    100. Diabetes is a long-term condition that causes high blood sugar levels; approximately 10% of all diabetes cases are type 1, for which the body does not produce insulin; the rest 90% are type 2, for which the body does not produce enough insulin for proper function. The most common diabetes symptoms include frequent urination, intense thirst and hunger, weight gain, unusual weight loss, fatigue, cuts and bruises that do not heal, male sexual dysfunction, numbness and tingling in hands and feet.
    101. It was estimated that over 382 million people throughout the world have diabetes and around 3.2 million deaths every year; six deaths every minute. The top 10 countries, in numbers of sufferers, are India, China, USA, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Russia, Brazil Italy and Bangladesh.
    102. Around 30.3 million Americans have had diabetes, of which around 12.0 million people age 65 and older and about 193,000 Americans under age 20. Around 1.5 million Americans are diagnosed with diabetes every year. The rates of diagnosed diabetes in adults by race/ethnic background are 7.4% of non-Hispanic whites, 8.0% of Asian Americans (of which 4.3% for Chinese, 8.9% for Filipinos, 11.2% for Asian Indians, and 8.5% for other Asian Americans), 12.1% of Hispanics (of which 8.5% for Central and South Americans, 9.0% for Cubans, 13.8% for Mexican Americans, and 12.0% for Puerto Ricans), 12.7% of non-Hispanic blacks, and 15.1% of American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Diabetes remains the 7th leading cause of death in the U.S. in 2015, with 79,535 people listing it as the underlying cause of death, and a total of 252,806 death certificates listing diabetes as an underlying or contributing cause of death.
    103. Postpartum depression (PPD), also called postnatal depression, is a type of mood disorder associated with childbirth, which can affect both sexes. Postnatal depression is a type of depression that many parents experience after having a baby; it's a common problem, affecting more than 1 in every 10 women within a year of giving birth, and one in 20 fathers experienced postnatal depression in the weeks after their child was born. A girl is more at risk of developing mental health problems if her father has experienced postnatal depression. Symptoms may include extreme sadness, low energy, anxiety, crying episodes, irritability, and changes in sleeping or eating patterns.
    104. Tinnitus is the perception of noise (heard can be soft or loud) or ringing in the ears, and it occurs when there is no outside source of the sounds. It may also sound like blowing, roaring, buzzing, hissing, humming, whistling, or sizzling. A common problem, tinnitus affects about 1 in 5 people. Almost everyone notices a mild form of tinnitus once in a while. It only lasts a few minutes; however, constant or recurring tinnitus is stressful and makes it harder to focus or sleep. Tinnitus is often more noticeable at night because surroundings are quieter. To make tinnitus less irritating, try to relax, get enough rest, and avoid loud places and sounds, and things that may make tinnitus worse, such as caffeine, alcohol, and smoking. If these are not helpful, it may be a symptom of an underlying condition, such as age-related hearing loss, ear injury, or a circulatory system disorder, high blood pressure, an allergy, or anemia (in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells). In rare cases, tinnitus is a sign of a serious problem, such as a tumor or aneurysm. Other risk factors for tinnitus include temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ), diabetes, thyroid problems, obesity, and head injury.
    105. Around 12% of married women have trouble getting pregnant or sustaining a pregnancy. The chance of having a child is much higher for women younger than 35 years and men younger than 40 years than for older women and men. A couple ages 29-33 has a 20-25% chance of conceiving in any given month; after six months of trying, 60% of couples will conceive without any medical assistance. As women get older, it takes longer to conceive and the chance of having a baby decreases; the chance of pregnancy for a women at age 30 is around 20 percent, and by age 40, the chance is around 5 percent.
    106. The longest recorded pregnancy was 375 days (instead of the normal 280), the oldest recorded woman to have a baby was 66 years old, who gave birth by caesarean section to twin boys; 13% of women received infertility services in their lifetime.
    107. Fecal Microbiota Transplantations (FMTs) or "poop transplants" work as well as antibiotics to treat a common and deadly cause of diarrhea; this was a small trial, but the initial results showed that fecal microbiota transplantation may be an alternative to antibiotic therapy in primary C. difficile infection, which kills 29,000 Americans a year and makes 450,000 sick in the U.S. alone.
    108. Women ages 40 to 44 had 114,730 of the 3.8 million babies born in 2017, women 45 and older had 9,325. When women undergo in vitro fertilization with their own eggs, the chance of having a baby in each attempt falls from 41.5% before age 35 to 12.4% at ages 41–42. After age 44, the success rate is just 1%, which is why the vast majority of women who have babies after that age using eggs from younger donors.
    109. During 2013–2016, 8.1% of American adults aged 20 and over had depression in a given 2-week period. Women (10.4%) were almost twice as likely as were men (5.5%) to have had depression. Depression was lower among non-Hispanic Asian adults (3.1%), compared with Hispanic (8.2%), non-Hispanic black (9.2%), or non-Hispanic white (7.9%) adults.
    110. Depression is a serious medical condition that makes you feel restless, irritable, sad, anxious, numb, hopeless, shame, guilt, worthlessness, and powerlessness. It makes you lose interest in activities, hobbies, appetite and drastic changes in weight, and have little energy and feeling fatigued, trouble sleeping or sleeping too much, and physical problems, such as headaches, stomachaches, and back pain. Depression, stress and anxiety have been linked to memory problems, such as forgetfulness or confusion; it can make you difficult to focus on work and tasks, make decisions, or think clearly. About 30.0% of American adults with depression reported moderate or extreme difficulty with work, home, or social activities because of their depression symptoms. About a quarter of suicides in the US are felt to be due to undiagnosed, or misdiagnosed major depression.
    111. Urine is made up of excess water and waste products that have been filtered by kidneys from the body. Its natural light yellow color is due to excretion of a pigment found in your blood called urochrome. If you are healthy, the color should be a pale yellow to gold. Normal urine color varies, depending on how much water you drink. Fluids dilute the yellow pigments in urine, so the more you drink, the clearer your urine looks; when you drink less, the color becomes more dark or yellow. Most people need to empty their urine up to eight times a day; pregnant women and older people usually have to go more often than others. If you notice you suddenly have to pee more often than usual, though, it could be a sign of a health problem like a urinary tract infections (UIT), diabetes, an enlarged prostate in men, vaginitis in women, or a problem with the wall of your bladder called interstitial cystitis.
      • Urine can turn colors far beyond what's normal, including bloody/red/pink, blue, green, dark brown and cloudy white.
      • Bloody urine is common in urinary tract infections (UIT) and kidney stones. These problems usually cause pain; painless bleeding might signal a more-serious problem, such as cancer. Red or pink urine can be caused by (1) diseases, such as urinary track infections, enlarged prostate, kidney cysts, and kidney or bladder stones; (2) foods, such as beets, blackberries and rhubarb); and (3) medications, such as Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane) used to treat tuberculosis, and phenazopyridine (Pyridium - a drug that numbs urinary tract discomfort), and laxatives containing senna. Red or pink color can also be caused by your long-distance running.
      • Orange urine can result from medications, such as anti-inflammatory drug sulfasalazine (Azulfidine); phenazopyridine (Pyridium); some laxatives; and certain chemotherapy drugs. Orange urine along with light-colored stools can indicate the liver disease or bile duct. If your urine is dark or orange along with pale stools and yellow skin and eyes, your liver might be malfunctioning.
      • Blue or green urine can be caused by (1) colored food dyes and dyes used for some tests of kidney and bladder function; (2) medications, such as amitriptyline, indomethacin (Indocin, Tivorbex) and propofol (Diprivan); and (3) medical conditions, such as familial benign hypercalcemia, and UIT caused by pseudomonas bacteria.
      • Brown urine can result from (1) food, such as fava beans, rhubarb or aloe; (2) medications, such as antimalarial drugs chloroquine and primaquine, antibiotics metronidazole (Flagyl) and nitrofurantoin (Furadantin), laxatives containing cascara or senna, and methocarbamol — a muscle relaxant; and (3) medical conditions, such as liver and kidney disorders, kidney damage and urinary tract infections; and extreme exercise that leads to muscle injury.
      • Cloudy white urine can be caused by urinary tract infections and kidney stones.
    112. There are approximately 7,000 different types of rare diseases, with more being discovered each day and disorders; it is estimated that 350 million people worldwide suffer from rare diseases. and approximately 50% of these people are children. Rare diseases affect nearly 30 million Americans, but they’re difficult to diagnose, and treatment isn't always available, only 5% of rare diseases have FDA approved drug treatment.
    113. Mesothelioma is caused by exposure to asbestos, which is a mineral that was used in the United States. Mesothelioma is diagnosed in approximately 2,500 Americans each year with a life expectancy of twelve months to eighteen months from the time of diagnosis. There are four types of mesothelioma: pleural, peritoneal, pericardial, and testicular, which impact the cavity of lung, abdomen, heart and testes, respectively. Pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma are the most common ones.
    114. Polydipsia is the medical term for extreme thirst, which does not improve no matter how much a person drinks. It is not a disease by itself but can be an important symptom of certain health problems, such as diabetes. Common diabetes mellitus symptoms include polydipsia, polyuria, extreme and uncontrolled hunger, blurred vision, extreme fatigue or lack of energy, genital itching, slow healing of wounds or cuts, weight change (gain or loss), frequent or returning infections, and tingling or numbness in the hands or feet.
    115. When treated by an older doctor, hospitalized patients 65 and older may face a slightly higher risk of dying within a month of their admittance than if treated by a younger physician. Clinical skills and knowledge accumulated by experienced physicians can lead to better quality of care; however, doctors' skills and knowledge can also become outdated, as scientific technology and clinical guidelines change over time.
    116. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that can cause serious health problems if it is not treated. The name for the disease, ‘syphilis’, originates from an epic Latin poem Syphilis, sive morbus gallicus, ‘Syphilis, or the French disease'. The disease started with genital ulcers, then progressed to a fever, general rash and joint and muscle pains, then weeks or months later were followed by large, painful and foul-smelling abscesses and sores, or pocks, all over the body.  Muscles and bones became painful, especially at night.  The sores became ulcers that could eat into bones and destroy the nose, lips and eyes.  They often extended into the mouth and throat, and sometimes early death occurred. Before the introduction of Penicillin in 1943, Syphilis killed 1000's people each year.  The first Syphilis epidemic was occurred in Naples, Italy (called ‘Disease of Naples’) in 1495. When Syphilis first surfaced, the English named it the ‘French disease’, the French called it the ‘Spanish disease’, Germans named it the ‘French evil’, Russians called it ‘Polish disease’, Poles called it ‘Turkish disease’, Turks called it ‘Christian disease’ and Japan called it ‘Chinese pox.’
    117. Arsenic poisoning is a medical condition that occurs due to elevated levels of arsenic in the body. If exposure occurs over a brief period of time symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, encephalopathy, and watery diarrhea that contains blood. Long-term exposure can result in thickening of the skin, darker skin, abdominal pain, diarrhea, heart disease, and numbness. Arsenic increases the risk of cancer. Exposure is related to skin, lung, liver, and kidney cancer among others.
    118. Depression (major depressive disorder or clinical depression) is a common but serious mood disorder. It causes severe symptoms that affect how you feel, think, and handle daily activities, such as sleeping, eating, or working. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders that often lead to attempt suicide. 1 out of 6 people in the U.S. succumb to clinical depression during their lifetime. Experiences with major depressive disorder includes depressed moods, decreased energy, trouble concentrating, lost interest in activities, guilt of feelings of hopelessness, sleep disturbances, appetite changes and suicidal thoughts or attempts.
    119. Women are given a lot of advice during pregnancy, including to take a vitamin D supplement to keep bones and teeth healthy for their babies. There is no strong evidence that pregnant women should receive vitamin D supplementation to prevent low bone mineral content in their children; low vitamin D levels in the mothers do not affect their child’s bone health.
    120. Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infection, is found in about 99% of cervical cancers, and is the second most common type of cancer for women worldwide. By the age 50 approximately 80% of women have been infected with some type of HPV; more than 12,000 women in the United States is diagnosed with cervical cancer each year, and over 4,000 of women die annually.
    121. Zika virus is spread to people through mosquito bites, infected blood and sexual contact. Pregnant women with Zika infection probably give birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes (e.g.; small head). The most common symptoms of Zika virus disease are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes).
    122. A kidney stone is a solid piece of material which is formed in the kidneys from minerals in urine. Kidney stones typically leave the body in the urine stream, and a small stone may pass without causing symptoms, otherwise it leads to pain. About 9% of the U.S. population has a kidney stone, and in 2013 about 15,000 deaths globally because of kidney stone disease.
    123. Benlysta is the only treatment on the market specifically for Lupus, a disease in which the body's immune system attacks healthy issue, including skin, joints, kidneys or the brain. This prescription medicine is expensive; the patient needs to have at least 2 doses a month, each costs $3,330 per dose.
    124. A human body has 206 bones, of which 54 in the hands and 52 in the feet.
    125. Each year about 140 million people are born and around 57 million people die; approximate 108 billion people have ever lived on the Earth and about 7 billion people live today.
    126. The 10 leading causes of death in the world are heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lower respiratory track infections, trachea and bronchus lung cancers, HIV/AIDS, diarrhoeal disease, diabetes, road injury, and hypertensive heart disease.
    127. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), which is a newly viral respiratory illness to humans since 2102; people infected with MERS developed severe acute respiratory illness, including fever, cough, and shortness of breath, and many of them have died.
    128. Diagnostic error is the leading cause of medical malpractice claims in the U.S., 5-15% of diagnoses are estimated to have errors with an average of 60,000 deaths annually.
    129. Body temperature varied from person to person, at different times of day and for many other reasons besides illness. It tends to be about one degree higher during the day than in the middle of the night. The normal human body temperature averages 98.6; a temperature above 100.4, regardless of the normal range for an individual, is considered a universal sign of fever and suggests an illness
    130. The genegic high blood pressure (hypertension) drug Lisinopril was prescribed and refilled around 37 million times by more than 7 million American Medicare patients at a cost of $307 million in 2013.
    131. In 2012, 8,165 African Americans died because of HIV/AIDS; among whites and Latino people, 5,426 and 2,586 died, respectively.
    132. In 2011, around 1.2 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the U.S.; of which 491,110 were African Americans (41%) and 408,000 were whites (34%).
    133. Rates of HIV/AIDS are growing fastest among gays, bisexual and black men; as per the CDC, the percentage of HIV/AIDS patients in the U.S. are: 76% Male, 44% Black, 33% White, 24% Female, 19% Hispanic; 53% Male-to-Male Sex, 27% Male-to-Female Sex, and 15% Injection Drug Users.
    134. For the years after HIV/AIDS was first identified in 1984, patients survived an average of only 18 months; now most AIDS patients do not die since the treatment is more advanced in the U.S.; for example, in 2004 it took the average patient nearly three years of daily pill popping to reach undetectable virus levels; in 2013 it only took about three months; as of today, 94% of HIV/AIDS-positive people in the city are aware of their disease, compared with 84% nationwide.
    135. As per, there were over 1.1 million Americans live with HIV/AIDS, but only 84% have been diagnosed, 37% have received regular medical care, and 33% take anti-HIV/AIDS drugs.
    136. The first HIV/AIDS case was reported in the U.S. in 1984, as of 2014 the disease has killed over 650,000 Americans; and at its peak, there were around 50,000 deaths from the AIDS virus per year; now the number is about 15,000.
    137. As of 2014 the U.S. annually spent about $317 billion (which comes from medical expensive and disability payments) on caring for over 9.6 million adults with a serious mental illness.
    138. Scratching skin creates a mild amount of pain (in the skin), that can interfere with itching — at least temporarily — by getting nerve cells in the spinal cord to carry pain signals to the brain instead of itch signals.
    139. Around 1 in 7 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime. But a new study claims that those who have slept with more than 20 women during their lifetime there is a 28% reduction in the risk of having prostate cancer (all types), and a 19% reduction for aggressive types of cancer.
    140. Ebola, a viral disease, is not spread through the air, food, water or indirect contact with an infected person; it is transmitted only through direct contact with the bodily fluids, such as blood, diarrhea and vomit. Ebola's symptoms include fever, severe headache, muscle and stomach pain, weakness, diarrhea, vomiting and unexplained bleeding and bruising; about 50% of people infected with Ebola died.
    141. Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. The first EVD outbreaks occurred in remote villages in Central Africa.
    142. Ebola virus disease (EVD), which is a severe, often fatal illness in humans, outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 90%. EVD outbreaks occur primarily in remote villages in Central and West Africa, near tropical rainforests. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission.
    143. The Tuberculosis (TB), which is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often affect the lungs, is second only to HIV/AIDS as the greatest killer worldwide due to a single infectious agent. In 2012, 8.6 million people fell ill with TB and 1.3 million died from TB.
    144. One-third of the world's population is currently infected with the Tuberculosis (TB), which is an infectious disease that spreads through the air, but only 5-10% of people infected will become sick with the disease. of all TB cases India alone accounted for 26%, and China and India combined accounted for 38% worldwide.
    145. More than 5 million Americans (3.2 million are women and 1.8 million are men) are living with Alzheimer’s disease, and approximate 500,000 people died each year because of this disease.
    146. The "flu" or the seasonal flu is caused by the influenza virus and causes mostly upper respiratory problems while the "stomach flu" is often caused by a number of viruses and causes gastrointestinal problems, such as diarrhea and vomiting.
    147. Antibiotics don't work for viruses like colds and the flu.
    148. Meningococcal meningitis is a bacterial form of meningitis, a serious infection of the thin lining that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
    149. Hearing loss is associated with depression among American adults, especially women and those younger than age 70.
    150. Depression is 'a causal risk of coronary heart disease'
    151. The pregnancy rate for U.S. women is around 102 per 1,000 women aged 15–44. The birth rate for married women was around 70% higher than the rate for unmarried women; the abortion rate for unmarried women was almost five times higher than the rate for married women.
    152. The total U.S. cesarean delivery rate is about 33% of all births. About 60% of cesarean deliveries are primary cesareans (a first cesarean delivery regardless of parity). After a primary cesarean, a woman has only about a 10% chance of a vaginal birth for subsequent deliveries.
    153. Based on a CDC health survey report, in 2011, 61% of American adults aged 18 and over had excellent or very good health. Eleven percent of adults had been told by a doctor or other health professional that they had heart disease, 24% had been told on two or more visits that they had hypertension, 9% had been told that they had diabetes, and 22% had been told that they had some form of arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, lupus, or fibromyalgia.
    154. The number of people diagnosed with Lyme disease each year in the United States is around 300,000 with 96 percent of reported cases occurring in 13 states, Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia, and Wisconsin.
    155. LDL, known as "bad" cholesterol, should be under 130 for most people; 100 for people at high-risk; under 70 for those at the highest risk, such as those who have just survived a heart attack.
    156. 50% to 75% of people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have sleep problems; some have trouble falling or staying asleep; others wake up feeling less than refreshed or battle drowsiness during the day.
    157. Every 68 seconds, one American develops Alzheimer's disease, which currently affects 5.2 million people.
    158. Dealing with stress during middle age may increase the risk of developing dementia later in life.
    159. Every year, about 65 million people in the U.S. have high blood pressure. More than 7 million people have had a heart attack. Another 11 million have some other type of cardiovascular disease that impacts their heart and circulatory health.
    160. During sleep, the body produces cytokines, cellular hormones that help fight infections.
    161. Research shows that most people require seven or eight hours of sleep to function optimally. Failing to get enough sleep night after night can compromise your health and may even shorten your life..
    162. Cholera is an acute diarrhea disease that can kill within hours if left untreated. There are an estimated 3–5 million cholera cases and 100 000–120 000 deaths due to cholera every year.
    163. You can get cataracts in one eye or both eyes — but they can’t spread from one eye to the other; by age 80, most people either have cataracts or have had cataract surgery; cataract surgery is one of the most common operations in the United States
    164. 285 million people are visually impaired worldwide: 39 million are blind and 246 have low vision.
    165. Avian influenza (AI), commonly called bird flu, is an infectious viral disease of birds. Most avian influenza viruses do not infect humans; however some, such as H5N1, have caused serious infections in people.
    166. Asthma is a chronic disease of the bronchial, the air passages leading to and from the lungs. It is the most common chronic disease among children. Around 235 million people suffer from asthma worldwide.
    167. About 16 million girls aged 15 to 19 years and two million girls under the age of 15 give birth every year
    168. An estimated 650,000 people worldwide have multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). A study found that vitamin C can kill multidrug-resistant TB bacteria.
    169. Chronic pain affects more than 116 million Americans; a figure that dwarfs the number of people who suffer from diabetes, coronary heart disease/stroke and cancer combined.
    170. An estimated 22.3 million American people were living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes in 2012.
    171. More than 4,000 preventable mistakes occur in surgery every year in the U.S.
    172. Snoring and sleep apnea can lead to diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, depression, and premature death.
    173. There are about 20 million new sexually transmitted infections (STIs) each year in the United States.
    174. Mechanically removing a blood clot from a stroke patient’s brain is no more useful than the older treatment of giving an IV dose of a clot-dissolving drug to the body.
    175. The men who watched TV over 20 hours a week often have almost half the sperm concentration as the men who did not watch TV.
    176. Lung cancer is caused by tobacco use (cigarette smoking), secondhand smoke, radon, poor diet, alcohol intake, sedentary lifestyle, asbestos exposure, arsenic, and air pollution.
    177. About 50 percent of people, who use a common class of antidepressants were likely to suffer bleeding in or around the brain.
    178. Congestive heart failure, protein deficiency, circulatory problems, fluid in the lungs, kidney disease, lupus, lead poisoning and more can all cause changes to your nails or nail bed. For example, nails that have turned completely white may be a sign of liver disease, and if the skin beneath nails has turned red, it could indicate heart problems.
    179. The most common and dangerous cause of blue skin on your face or body is Cyanosis, which causes when the body is not able to put enough oxygen into the circulating blood. The possible diseases include heart defects, lung defects and blood disorders (potential blood cancer), Chromhidrosis and Pseudochromhidrosis.
    180. Anxiety or panic attacks are often accompanied by chest pain, most likely caused by muscle contractions in the chest wall. The common external factors can cause anxiety panic attacks are stress at work/school, stress in a personal relationship (e.g.; marriage, love), stress from an emotional trauma (e.g.; the death of a loved one), financial stress, stress from a serious medical illness, and side effect of medication.
    181. When people, who had a combination of jaw/left hand and chest pain, were brought to a hospital, they often had a EKG, a chest X-ray, an ultrasound test and a CT scan within the first hour; the possibilities the doctors mentioned were terrifying, heart attacks.
    182. Heart disease or lung problems can cause chest pain. Heartburn, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), stomach ulcer (burning pain occurs when stomach is empty and feels better when eating food), or gallbladder (pain often gets worse after a meal, especially a fatty meal) can also cause chest pain.
    183. People who have blood types A, B, or AB have a slightly higher risk of heart diseases compared to those with type O. The increased risk for blood type AB is 20%, type B, 11%, and type A, 8 %.
    184. The population of people having blood type A include 40% of whites, 26% of blacks, 31% of Hispanics and 28% of Asians; type B: 11% of whites, 19% of blacks, 10% of Hispanics and 25% of Asians; type AB: 4% of whites, 4% of blacks, 2% of Hispanics and 7% of Asians; and type O: 45% of whites, 51% of blacks, 57% of Hispanics and 40% of Asians.
    185. Cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer, and cancer that begins in the rectum is called rectal cancer. Cancer that starts in either of these organs may also be called colorectal cancer. Each year around 143,000 people in the U.S. are diagnosed with colorectal cancer. It is the fourth most common cancer in men, after skin, prostate, and lung cancer.
    186. The longest living cells in the body are brain cells which can live an entire lifetime.
    187. There are 60,000 miles of blood vessels in the human body.
    188. Most surgeries to avoid are stents for stable angina, complex spinal fusion for stenosis, hysterectomy for uterine fibroids, and knee arthroscopy for osteoarthritis.
    189. Sixty five percent of those with autism are left handed.
    190. Men should no longer receive a routine blood test to check for prostate cancer because the test does more harm than good.
    191. The top causes of death in high-income countries are Ischaemic heart disease (1.42m deaths in 2008; 15.6%), Stroke and other cerebrovascular disease (0.79m; 8.7%), Trachea, bronchus, lung cancers (0.54m, 5.9%), Alzheimer and other dementias (0.37m, 4.1%), Lower respiratory infections (0.35m, 3.8%), Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0.32m, 3.5%), Colon and rectum cancers (0.30m, 3.3%), Diabetes mellitus (0.24m, 2.6%), Hypertensive heart disease (0.21m, 2.3%), and Breast cancer (0.17m, 1.9%).
    192. The top causes of death in middle-income countries are Ischaemic heart disease (5.27m deaths in 2008, 13.7%), Stroke and other cerebrovascular disease (4.91m, 12.8%), Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2.79m, 7.2%), Lower respiratory infections (2.07m, 5.4%), Diarrhoeal diseases (1.68m, 4.4%), HIV/AIDS (1.03m, 2.7%), Road traffic accidents (0.94m, 2.4%), Tuberculosis (0.93m, 2.4%), Diabetes mellitus (0.87m, 2.3%), and Hypertensive heart disease (0.83m, 2.2%).
    193. The top causes of death in low-income countries are Lower respiratory infections (1.05m deaths in 2008, 11.3%), Diarrhoeal diseases (0.76m, 8.2%), HIV/AIDS (0.72m, 7.8%), Ischaemic heart disease (0.57m, 6.1%), Malaria (0.48m, 5.2%), Stroke and other cerebrovascular disease (0.45m, 4.9%), Tuberculosis (0.40m, 4.3%), Prematurity and low birth weight (0.30m, 3.2%), Birth asphyxia and birth trauma (0.27m, 2.9%), and Neonatal infections (0.24m, 2.6%).
    194. Globally, there are around 235 million people suffered from asthma, a chronic disease of the the air passages of the lungs which inflames and narrows them. Most asthma-related deaths occur in low- and lower-middle income countries.
    195. Ulcers increase the risk of diabetes.
    196. 1 in 88 American children has some form of autism spectrum disorder.
    197. Stay physically active, adopt a brain-healthy diet, remain socially active, and stay mentally active are the main components to keep a brain healthy.
    198. About 143,000 people in the U.S.were diagnosed with colon and rectal cancer in 2007, the most recent year with data, and 53,000 died of it. It's recommended that for people between age 50 and 75 colonoscopy should be screening once every 10 years, sigmoidoscopy every five years or an annual stool blood test.
    199. The human feet have 52 bones, which is 25% of all the bones in the body. The foot is an intricate structure containing 26 bones with thirty-three joints, 107 ligaments, 19 muscles and multiple tendons that hold the structure together and allow it to move in a variety of ways.
    200. Seventy-five percent of Americans will experience foot health problems of varying degrees of severity at one time or another in their lives. Women have four times of foot problems more than men do; lifelong patterns of wearing high heels often are the culprit.
    201. The brain hormone triggers the body's reaction to stress, and serves as the on-off switch to the body's stress response.
    202. In the U.S. 3.3 percent of all births were twins in 2009. About 7 percent of all births for women 40 and older were twins compared with 5 percent of women in their late 30s and 2 percent of women age 24 or younger.
    203. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee in West Africa as the source of HIV infection in humans. Although treatments for HIV/AIDS can slow the course of the disease, there is no cure for HIV infection.
    204. There are around 33.4 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, with 2.7 million new HIV infections per year and 2.0 million annual deaths due to AIDS. Around 60 million people have been infected worldwide since the start of the pandemic in 1981, with some 25 million deaths.
    205. Being diagnosed with HIV does not mean a person will also be diagnosed with AIDS, which is the late stage of HIV infection, when a person’s immune system is severely damaged and has difficulty fighting diseases and certain cancers. The early symptoms and signs of AIDS include night sweats, prolonged fevers, severe weight loss, persistent diarrhea, skin rash, persistent cough, and shortness of breath.
    206. HIV is spread primarily by having unprotected sex with someone who has HIV; having multiple sex partners; sharing needles, syringes, rinse water, or other equipment used to prepare illicit drugs for injection; being born to an infected mother, being “stuck” with an HIV-contaminated needle; receiving blood transfusions, blood products, or organ/tissue transplants that are contaminated with HIV; eating food that has been pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person; being bitten/deeply kissed by a person with HIV; or tattooing or body piercing present a potential risk of HIV transmission.
    207. More than 48 million Americans over age 12 have trouble hearing in one or both ears. Note that 115 decibels (dB) is how loud the average MP3 player is playing music at maximum volume; and listening to an MP3 player at 100db for just 15 minutes can cause hearing loss.
    208. 20% reduction of heart-disease risk for those who most frequently got vigorous exercise, such as running, jogging, swimming laps, playing tennis, doing aerobics, or walking six miles or more a week.
    209. There are 7 symptoms that suggest you have kidney damage: swelling (edema), poor appetite, weight loss, weakness, feeling tired, nausea or vomiting, and trouble sleeping.
    210. People who had depression at some point in their lives were about a third more likely to suffer a stroke than those who haven't been depressed.
    211. Possible causes of brain damage include prolonged hypoxia (shortage of oxygen), poisoning, infection, and neurological illness.
    212. In 2010, there were 84,685 surgical procedures among women at the age of 65 and up. Of those, 26,635 were face-lifts; 24,783, cosmetic eyelid operations; 6,469, liposuctions; 5,874, breast reductions; 3,875, forehead lifts; 3,339, breast lifts and 2,414, breast augmentations. And, the oldest one got her breast implants at the age of 83 in July 2011.
    213. In the US, in 2010 there were about 1 billion physician office visits; number of visits per 100 persons is 332.2; percent of visits made to primary care physicians is 55.5%; most frequent principal illness-related reason for visit is cough; and most commonly diagnosed condition is essential hypertension.
    214. If you were admitted to hospital your chances of being subjected to an error (no dying) in your care would be something like 1 in 10. Your chances of dying due to an error in health care would be 1 in 300.
    215. In addition to the chest pain, the other surprising signs of an unhealthy heart include neck pain, sexual problems, dizziness, faintness, or shortness of breath, indigestion, nausea, or heartburn, jaw and ear pain.
    216. As of the end of 2010, there were about 10 percent of world’s adults have the diabetes diseases, in which the body is unable to properly use and store glucose (a form of sugar). The disease can cause nerve damage resulting in kidney disease, blindness and amputation. China and India account for 40 percent of people with diabetes, in contrast, 10 percent of the world’s total live in the United States and Russia.
    217. Night sweats is often associated with eye diseases, respiratory disorders, hyperactivity, anxiety, atopic dermatitis, medications, menopause, cancers and infections.
    218. About 1.3 million Americans are affected by rheumatoid arthritis.
    219. Calcium supplements may increase cardiovascular (heart disease) risk.
    220. In the U.S. prostate cancer is a common cancer affecting 17% of men who are older than 65; 3% of old men died because of this disease annually. There are some symptoms of this disease: urinary problems (e.g.; urgency, frequency, hesitancy, pain during urination), difficult in penile erection, painful ejaculation, blood in urine or semen, pelvic discomfort, frequent pain in lower back, belly or hip, swelling in the legs.
    221. Men can develop the breast cancer disease; in the U.S., breast cancer in men accounts for less than 1% of breast cancer cases, and tends to strike men aged 60 and older.
    222. As of 2/20/2011, more than 110,000 Americans are listed as waiting for organs, including 87,995 for kidneys; 16,108 for liver; 3,209 for heart; 1,802 for lung; 1,398 for pancreas; and 258 for intestine.
    223. 26,213 transplants were performed in the U.S. between January 2010 and November 2010. Average number of days that Americans wait for a transplant is 1,269 for kidney; 319 for liver; 168 for heart; 148 for lung; 260 for pancreas; and 142 for intestine.
    224. Around 88,000 Americans need kidneys each year; however, only about 17,000 get kidneys, and more than 4,600 die because they did not get one in time.
    225. People suffered from mild hypertension, which is a blood pressure reading of no higher than 160/100 mm Hg, took a 81-milligram tablet of aspirin in the evening had a significant reduction in their blood pressure. Those who took the aspirin in the morning had no reduction at all.
    226. Heart attack, cardiac arrest and stroke generally often occur in early morning hours (between 5:00 AM and 12:00 PM) when the agreeability of thrombocytes is higher. A daily baby aspirin pill (81 mg), often recommended to lower the risks of heart disease, can also reduce high blood pressure -- but only if it's taken at bedtime.
    227. For people who have recently had a stent implanted in a blocked heart artery, the risk of developing a blood clot may be higher early in the morning than other times of day. Stent patients generally take aspirin plus another anti-clotting medication (e.g.; Plavix) for some time after the procedure -- a year or more if they have drug-coated stents.
    228. In 2009 there were 24.6 million people suffered from Asthma in the U.S.
    229. Having babies close together appears to increase the risk of autism.
    230. Every year around 18,000 American men learn they have prostate cancer.
    231. In the U.S. every year surgeons performed more than a million hip and knee replacements. In 2008, number of joint replacements for knees was 616,617, hips (total): 277,399; hips (partial): 108,491; shoulder (total): 26,178; shoulder (partial): 20,178; hand/finger/wrist: 2,338; and ankle: 1,554. Many patients will need to repair or replace their replacements 10 t0 20 years later.
    232. Scientists have developed a blood test that could find a single cancer cell circulating in a person's blood. The test will be used by oncologists as a diagnostic tool aimed at discovering as early as possible if a cancer has spread.
    233. Allergies affect around 50 million people in the U.S. Dust mites cause allergies in about 20 million people, and about 10 million people are allergic by cats.
    234. Women who suffer from both depression and diabetes have a increased risk of heart attacks and a higher chance of dying over a six-year period.
    235. About 1 million people in the U.S. go to the hospital with a heart attack every year; 2 in 3 people survive their heart attacks, and 1 in 5 heart attack survivors develop major depression.
    236. Nervous system disorders, diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure are ones of many physical or medical conditions that contribute to sexual dysfunction and diminish sexual desire.
    237. Around 5.2 million people in the U.S. do not know they have diabetes. African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans are almost twice as likely to get diabetes as non-Hispanic whites.
    238. Patients diagnosed with Cowden syndrome face an increased risk for colon cancer.
    239. Woman who had at least one stillbirth or miscarriage will increase the risk of a heart attack by 3.5 times later in her life; and women who had more than 3 miscarriages during their childbearing years will have 9 times as likely to have a heart attack.
    240. Childhood obesity links to the risk of adult obesity, heart/cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic disorders.
    241. Long-term stress may result in increasing risks for both diabetes and depression.
    242. A 2016 study found that the overall rate for stroke was 8% higher in the two days after daylight saving time. Cancer victims were 25% more likely to have a stroke during that time, and people older than 65 were 20% more likely to have a stroke.
    243. Stress symptoms commonly include exhaustion, irritability, muscular tension, inability to concentrate and a variety of physiological reactions, such as sleeplessness, headache and elevated heart rate. Stress is hurting physical and emotional health and contributing to some of the leading causes of death. Today 1 out of every 4 American are dealing with extremely high stress levels. The top 10 stress factors are money, work, economy, family responsibilities, relationships, personal health concerns, housing costs, job stability, health problems affecting the family, and personal safety.
    244. Doctors now can detect pre-cancerous growths in the stool for a colon cancer test; this new test can potentially be an alternative to colonoscopies. Colorectal cancer is a treatable disease if caught early.
    245. As of today about 24 million U.S. adults have diabetes, most of them type-2 diabetes linked strongly with poor diet and lack of exercise. Diabetes was the seventh-leading cause of death in the U.S., and is the leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults under age 75, as well as kidney failure, and leg and foot amputations not caused by injury.
    246. The five year survival rate for all cancers combined is approximately 65 percent. Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are the forms of cancer treatment.
    247. Lung cancer, a serious illness, is the major cause of death in the U.S. Early screening for this disease is not as effective as it is with breast, colon or prostate cancers. It is also more resistant to treatment than some other cancers.
    248. Palliative care, which helps the gravely ill make the most of the time they have left, provided a surprising bonus for terminal lung cancer patients. The patients who started soon after their diagnosis on palliative care along with usual cancer care lived nearly three months longer than people given only standard cancer care. More than half of lung cancer patients have incurable diseases by the time they are diagnosed.
    249. Young people with the kind of irregular heartbeat (known as a trial fibrillation) may be better off undergoing surgery to fix the problem instead of taking medication first.
    250. Chlorotoxin, an ingredient in scorpion venom, may shrink brain cancers by helping spread therapeutic genes throughout the brain gene therapy.
    251. Mississippi has some of the country's highest rates of obesity, diabetes, hypertension and infant mortality.
    252. One of the first signs of diabetes is bleeding gums or bone loss around the teeth.
    253. Diabetes can cause heart disease, kidney failure, limb amputations and blindness
    254. Diabetes occurs when the body is unable to produce or unable to properly use and store glucose (a form of sugar). It is a major risk factor for heart disease. People who are over 40 and overweight are more likely to develop diabetes.
    255. As of 3/2011 more than 25 million Americans have diabetes (more than 90% have Type 2), but an additional 79 million people have pre-diabetes, in which blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not as high as in diabetes.
    256. In 2009 diabetes is the 7th leading cause of death in the U.S. for people aged 25 years and older; 23.6 million people in the U.S. have diabetes; 11.2% of men and 10.2% of women have diabetes.
    257. Black, Hispanics and American Indians have higher rates of diabetes
    258. One in 10 Chinese adults already have diabetes; the finding surpasses other Western nations, including Germany and Canada.
    259. Diabetes is a silent disease; however, there are some symptoms of this disease: weight loss, increased urination, excessive thirst, fatigue and irritability, blurry vision tingling/numbness, hunger, skin problems, slow healing, and/or Candida infections.
    260. Both parents’ ages linked to autism risk. When the father was over 40 and the mother under 30, the increased risk was 59 percent greater than for younger men. By contrast, when the father was over 40 and the mother 30 or older, the risk of autism rose 13 percent.
    261. Lipodystrophy, a syndrome that causes the supporting fatty tissue under the skin to crumble even while the skin continues to grow, often at an alarming rate, makes people look older, such as it makes a girl, 13, look like she's 50.
    262. Women who are depressed have an increased risk of abdominal obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and even cancer.
    263. Women should not need a mammogram in their 40s, but should get one every two years starting at 50.
    264. About 25% of Asian-American adults have hypertension (i.e.; having blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 millimeters (mm) mercury (Hg)). Of which there is about 5.0% for the 20–39 age group, 26.5% for the 40–59 age group, and 59.6% for the 60 and over age group. There are around 15.4 million Asian people in the U.S., which primarily comprise persons of Chinese, Asian Indian, Korean, Filipino, Vietnamese, and Japanese descent.
    265. High blood pressure is a risk factor for more than heart disease; left uncontrolled, you may wind up with a disability, a poor quality of life or even a fatal heart attack. High blood pressure can damage brain, kidneys, eyes, and heart; narrow arteries, cause sexual dysfunction and trouble sleep, and make bone loss.
    266. Having high blood pressure (HBP) and coronary artery disease (CAD) puts you at a greater risk of a heart attack or stroke. You can have HBP for years without knowing it because HBP itself usually has no symptoms. If your blood pressure rises and stays high over time, it can damage your heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and other parts of your body. The numbers in a blood pressure reading include Systolic and Diastolic. Systolic (the top number) is the maximum pressure in the arteries when the heart is contracting or squeezing. Diastolic (the bottom number) represents the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest. The recommended blood pressure goal is below 140/90 mmHg (millimeters of mercury). If your blood pressure is above that level, you may have HBP. The most common of medications to treat HBP in people who have CAD is Beta-blockers, which slow the heart rate, reduce the heart's output of blood, and decrease the force of the heart beat.
    267. There are 30 different blood types. However, most people have blood types: O, A, B and AB. Type O blood is the most common, it can help other Os and also people with AB, A and B blood types. The next common one is type A, which can help other As and also people with AB blood types. Type B is one of the rarest blood types, it can help people with B, O, A and AB blood types. Type AB is the rarest blood type of 4 common ones, it can help people with AB, O, B and A blood types. The major common blood types in the U.S. include O+: 37.4%; O-: 6.6%; A+: 35.7%; A-: 6.3%; B+ 8.5%; B-: 1.5%; AB+: 3.4% and AB-: 0.6%.
    268. A new report released on November 10, 2010 by the CDC found that around 49.9 million Americans aged 18-64 went at least part of the last twelve months without health care insurance coverage.
    269. Around 46 million Americans under the age of 65 were without health insurance since 2007.
    270. People who lost their jobs between September 1, 2008 and December 31, 2009 can keep COBRA coverage under their former employer's plan for up to 18 months. The economic-stimulus plan provides a 65% subsidy for COBRA (Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act) premiums for up to 9 months for people who were laid off during this period to find out if you qualify, go to or call 866-444-3272.
    271. If you have no insurance and/or your family has a low income, you and your family are eligible for joining the Partnership for Prescription Assistance (, a coalition of pharmaceutical companies, healthcare providers, and patient advocacy groups that helps patients get free or discounted medications. Typically, as a member you can receive free medications or pays only $4 for a generic thyroid prescription.
    272. If you've ever been hospitalized, do not make any decisions before you have received, and analyzed, all the bills. Once you've determined what you can afford, ask the hospital's credit officer for interest-free payments. If the debt is truly unwieldy, ask for the Medicare rate (not the insurance rate) or a charity write-off.
    273. In 2008, an estimated 57 million people died throughout the world. Of 1000 people died, 159 would have come from high-income countries, 677 from middle-income countries and 163 from low-income countries.
    274. In 2008, cardiovascular (schaemic heart) diseases killed 7.3 million people worldwide, of which 6.2 million from stroke or another form of cerebrovascular disease.
    275. Throughout the world in 2008, more than 8 million deaths were among children under five years of age, and 99% of them were in low- and middle-income countries.
    276. The U.S. has fewer practicing physicians per capita than many similarly large and wealthy countries with health care systems. The country has only 2.6 physicians per 1,000 people, which lags behind comparable countries, Austria (5.2), Switzerland (4.3), Germany (4.3), Sweden (4.1), Italy (4.0), Spain (3.9),Australia (3.7), Netherlands (3.2), France (3.2), Belgium (3.1), United Kingdom (2.8) and Canada (2.7). However, the U.S. has slightly more licensed nurses, 17.5 per 1000 people, relative to comparable countries, it just lags behind South Korea (20.5), Sweden (19.7) and Belgium (18). U.S. hospitals have more employees than most comparable countries, but many are administrative workers; the country has 20.1 hospital employees (per 1,000 people), of which 9.5 handling administrative work, it's just behind Switzerland, which has 25 hospital workers (per 1,000 people), of which 7.6 doing administrative jobs.
    277. As of March 2019, there are 1,005,295 physicians in the U.S, of which 479,856 are primary care doctors and 525,439 are specialist physicians; California has the largest number of physicians (112,906), and North Dakota has the lowest number (2,015).
    278. Dr. Daniel Hale Williams (January 18, 1856 – August 4, 1931) was the first African American general surgeon, who in 1893 performed the first documented, successful pericardium surgery in the United States to repair a wound. A pericardial window is a cardiac surgical procedure to create a fistula – or "window" – from the pericardial space to the pleural cavity to allow a pericardial effusion (usually malignant) to drain from the space surrounding the heart into the chest cavity – where the fluid is not as dangerous; an untreated pericardial effusion can lead to cardiac tamponade and death. Graduated from Northwestern University Medical School, Dr. Williams opened a private practice where his patients were white and black. Black doctors, however, were not allowed to work in American hospitals at that time; as a result, in 1891, Dr. Williams founded the Provident Hospital and training school for nurses in Chicago, IL. Dr. Henry Dalton was the first American to successfully perform pericardium surgery to repair a wound. Earlier successful surgeries to drain the pericardium, by performing a pericardiostomy were done by Dr. Francisco Romero in 1801 and Dr. Dominique Jean Larrey in 1810.
    279. There are about 60 million health workers worldwide.
    280. A Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) study reported that medical expenses account for roughly 4 percent of bankruptcy filings among nonelderly adults in the U.S.
    281. Medical Billing Advocates of America, a group that helps patients handle medical bills, and Time Magazine analyzed hundreds of bills from hospitals and revealed many overcharges on a patient’s itemized bill. For example, a Tylenol pill for $15, $53 for per pair of gloves, $8 for a grocery bag (to hold your personal items), $8 for a box of tissues, $53 for per non-sterile pair (sterile are higher), $10 for a plastic cup used to administer medicine, $23 for per alcohol swab, $17.50 for a color mark on the body for surgery, $20 for a blood pressure measurement, $6.25 for a nurse to hand you medicine taken by mouth per instance, and $93.50 for cost of use of overhead light in operating room.
    282. Hospital list prices aren't completely irrelevant; however, as they usually serve as a starting point for negotiations with commercial payers. Hospital charges are essentially their list prices for medical services, which are different from the actual amount of money insurers, patients or the government ends up paying hospitals in exchange for the services. The prices on a hospital's chargemaster bear little relationship to the amount most patients are asked to pay. That's because commercial insurers or government (e.g; Medicare, Medicaid) negotiate discounts with healthcare providers on behalf of their members, and the costs are often less than the actual cost of care. Hospitals' rising list prices primarily affect the uninsured and people with coverage but who seek care at hospitals outside of their insurance network. Many hospitals often allow low-income patients who are uninsured to receive free care or care for a reduced charge.

    Health Education - Video
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    COVID-19 Outbreak & Pandemics
    ▷News, Info & Facts
    1. COVID-19 Updates | Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center
    2. COVID-19 Updates | Stanford Medicine
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    26. COVID-19 Vaccine Tracker: View Vaccinations by Country | CNN
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    46. COVID-19 Vaccines | FDA
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    48. Severe Outcomes Among Patients with Coronavirus (COVID-19) | CDC
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    98. The Worst Outbreaks in U.S. History
    99. A Complete History of Pandemics
    100. History's Deadliest Pandemics: Plague, Smallpox, Flu, COVID-19 ...
    101. The History of Plague – Part 1. The Three Great Pandemics
    102. The History of Influenza Pandemics by the Numbers
    103. Visualizing the History of Pandemics
    104. Maritime Infographic: Visualizing the History of Pandemics
    105. Pandemics that Changed History: Timeline
    106. The Worst Epidemics and Pandemics in History
    107. Brief History of Pandemics (Pandemics Throughout History)
    108. A Brief History of Vaccines and How They Changed the World
    109. COVID-19 Vaccine Updates: Sanofi and GSK Seek Approval for New Vaccine
    110. Reactions and Adverse Events of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine
    111. COVID-19 Vaccines: Safety, Side Effects, and Coincidence | Harvard Health
    112. COVID-19 Vaccines: Myth Versus Fact | Johns Hopkins Medicine
    113. Side Effects of COVID-19 Vaccines
    114. Science Brief: COVID-19 Vaccines and Vaccination
    115. The Impact of Vaccination on COVID-19 Outbreaks in the United States
    116. The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Immunization Campaigns and Programs: A Systematic Review
    117. Diabetes and COVID-19 Vaccination: 9 Things You Should Know
    118. Type 2 Diabetes and the COVID-19 Vaccine: Is It Safe?
    119. The Origin of COVID-19 and Why It Matters
    120. 4 COVID-19 Vaccines Compared
    121. 7 Rapid At-Home Covid-19 Tests—and Where to Find Them
    122. 12 Things You Need to Know About COVID-19 Vaccine
    ▷ COVID-19 Vaccines
    1. Approved by the FDA
    2. Approved by the WHO
    3. NOT Approved by either FDA or WHO
    4. Variant Vaccines?
    5. WHO R&D Blueprint COVID-19 New Variants: Knowledge Gaps and Research
    6. Do COVID-19 Vaccines Protect Against the Variants?
    7. Advances in COVID-19 Vaccines and New Coronavirus Variants
    8. COVID-19: Vaccines and Variants
    9. New Vaccine May Protect Against Future Variants of COVID-19 and Other Related Coronaviruses
    10. The Effects of Virus Variants on COVID-19 Vaccines
    ▷ COVID-19: How, Who, What, When & Why
    1. How to Find COVID-19 Pills, Paxlovid and Molnupiravir
    2. How to Get a Free Rapid COVID-19 Test Kit from the Federal Government
    3. How to Get the Free At-home COVID Tests
    4. How to Treat COVID-19 at Home
    5. How to Treat the Symptoms of COVID-19 at Home
    6. How to Treat a Cough from Coronavirus at Home
    7. How to Treat Mild COVID-19 Symptoms at Home
    8. How to Overcome COVID-19 Fatigue
    9. How to Shop for FDA-authorized Home COVID Test Kits: A Guide
    10. How We’re Helping Coronavirus COVID-19 | Google
    11. How Long Will a Vaccine Really Take?
    12. How Close Are We to a Covid-19 Vaccine?.
    13. How Are COVID-19 Vaccines Different?
    14. How Do Coronavirus and SARS Differ?
    15. How Do We Know the COVID-19 Vaccine Won't Have Long Term Side Effects.
    16. How Does the COVID-19 Vaccine Affect Type 2 Diabetes
    17. How Does COVID-19 Affect People with Diabetes?
    18. How Does the Coronavirus Affect the Heart?
    19. How Viral Mutations Occur in SARS-CoV-2
    20. How SARS Spread in Hong Kong (video)
    21. How the Merck and Pfizer COVID-19 Pills Work
    22. How Soon After a Possible Exposure to COVID-19 Should You Get Tested If You Are Vaccinated or Unvaccinated?
    23. What to Do If You Are COVID-19 Sick | CDC
    24. What to Do If You Think You're Sick with COVID-19 Symptoms
    25. What to Know If You Were Vaccinated Outside the U.S.
    26. What to Know About Pandemics
    27. What to Know About COVID-19 Omicron BA.2.75 Variant
    28. What Is COVID-19?
    29. What Is a Coronavirus and COVID-19?
    30. What Is Important to Know About SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern (Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Gamma)?
    31. What Is the Difference Between the Delta and Delta Plus Variant of COVID-19?
    32. What Is Omicron? What to Know About New Coronavirus Variant in South Africa, Impact on US, Vaccine Effectiveness
    33. What Is It Like to Get a COVID-19 Vaccination?
    34. What Are the New COVID-19 Variants, and How Can We Track Them?
    35. What Are Omicron Variant Symptoms?
    36. What Are the Differences Among COVID-19, Cold, Allergies and the Flu?
    37. What Would an Antiviral Pill Mean for the Fight Against COVID-19? (Merck COVID-19 Pill)
    38. What You Need to Know About Coronavirus
    39. What You Need to Know: Getting a COVID-19 Vaccine
    40. What You Need to Know: Diabetes + COVID Vaccines
    41. What You Need to Know About Pfizer COVID-19 Treatment Pill
    42. What You Should Know About COVID Variants
    43. What Should You Do If You Think You're Sick with COVID-19?
    44. What Should You Do If You Think You Have COVID-19?
    45. What Happens If You Get COVID-19? (video)
    46. What Would an Antiviral Pill Mean for the Fight Against COVID-19?
    47. What Diabetes Patients Should Know About the COVID-19 Vaccine
    48. Where Has Omicron Spread, and Why Are Scientists So Concerned?
    49. Which Countries Have Found Omicron Cases So Far?
    50. 'Why Is It Called COVID-19?'
    51. Why Are There High COVID Cases in Vaccinated States?
    52. Why Are Covid-19 Cases Increasing?
    53. Why People Aren't Getting the COVID-19 Vaccine in the U.S
    54. Why Should Children Get Vaccinated?
    55. Why Should I Get Vaccinated for COVID-19?
    56. Why You Should Not Use Ivermectin to Treat or Prevent COVID-19 | FDA
    57. Why Do COVID-19 Breakthrough Cases Occur?
    58. Why COVID-19 Shots Don’t Last a Lifetime
    59. Why COVID-19 Breakthrough Infections Occur
    60. Why ‘Breakthrough’ COVID-19 Cases Happen
    61. Why COVID-19 Cannot Be Eliminated
    62. Why COVID-19 Is Both Startlingly Unique and Painfully Familiar
    63. Why a Coronavirus Vaccine Takes over a Year to Produce – and Why That Is Incredibly Fast.
    64. Why Is the U.S. Behind on Coronavirus (COVID-19) Testing?
    65. Why Face Masks for COVID-19 Are Encouraged in Asia, but Shunned in the U.S.


    Vaccination, the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases, is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop protection from a disease. Vaccines contain a microorganism or virus in a weakened, live or killed state, or proteins or toxins from the organism. In stimulating the body's adaptive immunity, they help prevent sickness from an infectious disease. Vaccination can prevent certain deadly diseases in infants, children, teens, adults and travelers of all ages, as of today, there are about 50 different types of popular vaccines.

    • Adacel: Protects against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis (whooping cough).
    • ADT Booster: Protects against tetanus and diphtheria.
    • Adenovirus: Prevents healthcare-associated outbreaks of adenovirus infections, such as epidemic keratoconjunctivitis.
    • Anthrax, including AVA (BioThrax),: Protects people from anthrax, and prevents anthrax from developing in people who have been exposed to the bacteria but have not developed symptoms
    • Avaxim: Protects against hepatitis A.
    • BCG Vaccine SSI: Protects against severe tuberculosis.
    • Bexsero: Protects against meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis group B.
    • Boostrix: Protects against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis (whooping cough).
    • COVID-19 Vaccines: Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen, mRNA, and Viral Vector: Protects against COVID-19 virus.
    • Cholera, including Vaxchora, reduces the chance of severe diarrhea in people by 90% at 10 days after vaccination and by 80% at 3 months after vaccination.
    • Diphtheria, including DTaP (Daptacel, Infanrix), Td (Tenivac, generic), DT (-generic-), Tdap (Adacel, Boostrix), DTaP-IPV (Kinrix, Quadracel), DTaP-HepB-IPV (Pediarix), and DTaP-IPV/Hib (Pentacel): Protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis.
    • Engerix-B: Protects against hepatitis B.
    • Gardasil 9: Protects against nine types of human papillomavirus.
    • Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), including Hib (ActHIB, PedvaxHIB, Hiberix), DTaP-IPV/Hib (Pentacel): Prevents Hib disease, but not illness from other strains of H. influenzae bacteria.
    • Havrix: Protects against hepatitis A.
    • HBvaxPRO: Protects against hepatitis B.
    • Hepatitis A, including HepA (Havrix, Vaqta) and HepA-HepB (Twinrix),: Protects against hepatitis A.
    • Hepatitis B, including HepB (Engerix-B, Recombivax HB, Heplisav-B), DTaP-HepB-IPV (Pediarix), and HepA-HepB (Twinrix),: Protects against hepatitis B.
    • Hiberix: Protects against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease.
    • Human Papillomavirus (HPV), including HPV9 (Gardasil 9) (for scientific papers, the preferred abbreviation is 9vHPV),: Protects against cancers caused by HPV infections
    • Infanrix-hexa: Protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough), polio, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib).
    • Infanrix-IPV: Protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (whooping cough) and polio.
    • Influenza vaccines: Protects against influenza.
    • (Seasonal) Influenza (Flu), including IIV (Afluria, Fluad, Flublok, Flucelvax, FluLaval, Fluarix, Fluvirin, Fluzone, Fluzone High-Dose, Fluzone Intradermal) and LAIV (FluMist),: Protects against influenza.
    • IPOL: Protects against polio.
    • Japanese Encephalitis (JE), including JE (Ixiaro),: Reduces the risk for JE virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, for expatriates and travelers who stay for prolonged periods in rural areas in Asia with active JE virus transmission.
    • M-M-R II: Protects against measles, mumps and rubella.
    • Menactra: Protects against meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis groups A, C, Y and W (previously called W-135).
    • NeisVac-C: Protects against meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis group C.
    • Measles, including MMR (M-M-R II)and MMRV (ProQuad),: Protects against three diseases: measles, mumps, and rubella.
    • Meningococcal, including MenACWY (Menactra, Menveo) and MenB (Bexsero, Trumenba),: Protects against the most common causes of meningococcal disease, but they will not prevent all cases.
    • Mumps, including MMR (M-M-R II) and MMRV (ProQuad),: Protects against three diseases: measles, mumps, and rubella.
    • Nimenrix: Protects against meningococcal disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis groups A, C, Y and W (previously called W-135).
    • Pneumovax23: Protects against pneumococcal disease caused by 23 types of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
    • Prevenar 13: Protects against pneumococcal disease caused by 13 types of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
    • Priorix: Protects against measles, mumps and rubella.
    • Pertussis, including DTaP (Daptacel, Infanrix), Tdap (Adacel, Boostrix), DTaP-IPV (Kinrix, Quadracel), DTaP-HepB-IPV (Pediarix), and DTaP-IPV/Hib (Pentacel),: Protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, but they will not prevent all cases.
    • Pneumococcal, including PCV13 (Prevnar13) and PPSV23 (Pneumovax 23),: Protects against some of the more than 90 serotypes of pneumococcal bacteria.
    • Polio, including Polio (Ipol), DTaP-IPV (Kinrix, Quadracel), DTaP-HepB-IPV (Pediarix), and DTaP-IPV/Hib (Pentacel),: Reduces the risk for exposure to polioviruses, including children, international travelers, laboratory workers, and healthcare professionals.
    • Rabies, including Rabies (Imovax Rabies, RabAvert),: Reduces the risk for rabies virus, which is a fatal, acute, progressive encephalomyelitis caused by neurotropic Rhabdoviridae or genus Lyssavirus viruses found in a wide variety of animal species throughout the world.
    • Rotavirus, including RV1 (Rotarix) and RV5 (RotaTeq),: Protects against rotavirus disease for a child before he/she is 15 weeks of age.
    • Rotarix: Protects against rotavirus.
    • Rubella, including MMR (M-M-R II) and MMRV (ProQuad),: Protects against three diseases: measles, mumps, and rubella.
    • Shingles, including ZVL (Zostavax) and RZV (Shingrix),: Prevents shingles.
    • Tetanus, including DTaP (Daptacel, Infanrix), Td (Tenivac, generic), DT (-generic-), Tdap (Adacel, Boostrix), DTaP-IPV (Kinrix, Quadracel), DTaP-HepB-IPV (Pediarix), DTaP-IPV/Hib (Pentacel),: protect against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis, but they will not prevent all cases.
    • Tuberculosis: Protects against Tuberculosis (TB) disease.
    • Typhoid Fever, including Typhoid Oral (Vivotif)and Typhoid Polysaccharide (Typhim Vi),: Reduces the risk for typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever, which are the bacteremic illnesses that have an insidious onset characterized by fever, headache, constipation or diarrhea, malaise, chills, and myalgias.
    • Synflorix: Protects against pneumococcal disease caused by at least 10 types of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
    • Varicella, including VAR (Varivax) and MMRV (ProQuad),: Protect against varicella (chickenpox).
    • Varilrix: Protects against varicella (chickenpox).
    • Varivax: Protects against varicella (chickenpox).
    • Yellow Fever, including YF (YF-Vax),: Reduces the risk for yellow fever virus transmission found in South America and Africa.
    • Zostavax: Protects against herpes zoster (shingles).

    Healthcare Reform: How, What, When & Why

    1. How to Get the Most from Your Health Plan.
    2. How Does ObamaCare Work?
    3. How Does Obamacare Work? - Obamacare Explained
    4. How Does Obamacare Work? | Obamacare and ACA
    5. How Does Obamacare Work? - FAQs
    6. How Does Obamacare Tax Credit Work?
    7. How Does Obamacare Tax Work
    8. How Does Obamacare Really Work - And Will It Effect You?
    9. How Does Obamacare Work for the Unemployed?
    10. How Does Trump's Plan Compare to Obamacare?
    11. How Does the Quality of Care Compare in Five Countries?
    12. How Does the Quality of U.S. Health Care Compare Internationally
    13. How Does the Quality of the U.S. Healthcare System Compare to other Countries?
    14. How Obamacare Works for Unemployed
    15. How Obamacare Can Help the Unemployed
    16. How the ACA Health Insurance Subsidy Works
    17. How Affordable Care Act (ACA) Subsidies Work?
    18. How Much Will Obamacare Cost Me
    19. How Much of ObamaCare Is "Severable"?
    20. How Different Types of People Will Be Affected by the Health Care Overhaul.
    21. How Good Is the Quality of Health Care in the United States?
    22. How Prepared is the US to Respond to COVID-19 Relative to other Countries?
    23. How Trump Could Still Undermine Obamacare
    24. How an Obamacare Repeal Could Hurt You Even If You Get Insurance Through Work.
    25. How Federal Employees Can Save Tax Dollars on Health, Dental and Vision Premiums.
    26. How We Do Harm - A Doctor Breaks Ranks About Being Sick in America.
    27. How American Health Care Killed My Father.
    28. How Health Care Works Around the World.
    29. What Health Disparities Are and Why They Matter.
    30. What Obamacare Means for You.
    31. What Health-Care Reform Really Means.
    32. What Is the Affordable Care Act & How Does it Work?
    33. What It Would Take to Save Obamacare
    34. What Happens Next with Obamacare Repeal
    35. What Does This Health Care Bill Affect You & Means for Us?
    36. What Did Obamacare Actually Do?
    37. What You Need to Know About the Obamacare Marketplaces.
    38. What Makes Health Care So Expensive in the U.S.?
    39. What Does Trump's Executive Order Against Obamacare.
    40. What Trump's Obamacare Executive Order Means.
    41. What Is Next for Obamacare (2016).
    42. When Health Care Reform will Affect You.
    43. When Will Happen If The Health-Care Law Is Not Passed?
    44. Who Can Get Obamacare Insurance
    45. Why Doesn’t the United States Have Universal Healthcare? | Healthline
    46. Why Doesn't the US Have Universal Health Care?
    47. Why the US Should Have Universal Health Care
    48. Why Healthcare Is So Expensive in the U.S.
    49. Why American Health Care Is So Bad
    50. Why Does Healthcare Cost So Much?

    Health Care Law

    The simple principles of the recently established Health Care Law:

    Healthcare Analysis & Facts
    ▷ News, Facts & Analysis
    1. U.S. Health Care Coverage and Spending (2022)
    2. U.S. Healthcare Spending 2000-2022
    3. Obamacare Turns 10 - Look at What Works and Doesn’t.
    4. Health Care Services Quality Improvement
    5. Health Care in America
    6. The US Healthcare System: Complex and Unequal
    7. The Importance of Health and Health Care
    8. Overview of the U.S. Healthcare System
    9. Quality in Healthcare: Concepts and Practice
    10. U.S. Health Care: Facts About Cost, Access, and Quality
    11. Universal Healthcare in the United States of America: A Healthy Debate
    12. Delivering Quality Health Services: A Global Imperative for Universal Health Coverage
    13. Reforming America's Healthcare System Through Choice and Competition
    14. Caring for Quality in Health Lessons Learnt from 15 Reviews of Health Care Quality
    15. Patients’ Perspectives on Health Care in the United States: A Look at Seven States & the Nation
    16. The Anatomy of Health Care in the United States
    17. ObamareCare
    18. ObamaCare Summary: Obama Health Care Summary
    19. Obamacare: A Nonpartisan Review of What It Is and What It Is Not
    20. ObamaCare Facts
    21. Obamacare Facts - Facts About the Affordable Care Act
    22. ObamaCare Facts: Facts on the Affordable Care Act
    23. Obamacare Pros and Cons
    24. ObamaCare Essential Health Benefits
    25. Obamacare Health Insurance Plan Quotes
    26. Compare Obamacare Health Insurance Plans Online
    27. Obamacare Premiums Are Falling
    28. The Patient Protection & Affordable
    29. Guard Your New Medicare ID Card to Avoid Fraud.
    30. The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on the Health Care Workforce
    31. Obamacare Has Changed America's Health Care System
    32. Updated Estimates for the Insurance Coverage Provisions of the Affordable Care Act
    33. Healthy Outlook: Public Health Resources for Systems Transformation.
    34. Global Health Care Sector Outlook (2021)
    35. Health Care as a Human Right
    36. Point Turning Point: The Case for Universal Health Care
    37. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
    38. The Health Care Law
    39. Affordable Care Act: An Understanding of the Law.
    40. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
    41. Problems of Health Care in the United States – Social Problems
    42. Find Doctors and Medical Facilities in the U.S
    43. Healthcare Statistics (2021)
    44. News Industry Diversity in the U.S.
    45. Healthcare Occupations
    46. Facts About the Economics of the US Health-care System
    47. Predicting COVID-19’s Long-Term Impact on the Home Health Care Market
    48. Toward Developing Estimates of U.S. Imports of Illegal Drugs
    49. Are Medical Care Prices Still Declining?
    50. Obamacare Bill: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
    51. Adjusting Health Expenditures for Inflation: A Review of Measures for Health Services Research in the United States
    52. US and Global Health Care Outlook (2020)
    53. Health Care Industry Outlook
    54. Introduction to the U.S. Health Care System
    55. The U.S. Health Care System: An International Perspective
    56. Trump’s Latest Health Care Move Squeezes Republicans
    57. The Stealth Repeal of Obamacare
    58. Pro-Obamacare Group Hits Collins Over Tax Vote
    59. Health Information from the Government
    60. Understanding the U.S. Healthcare System
    61. Introduction to Healthcare and Public Health in the US
    62. I’ve Seen the Future of Healthcare. I Like What I See.
    63. Older Americans Face Price Hikes in GOP's Obamacare Plans
    64. Trump's Executive Order and Obamacare: Where We Go from Here
    65. Trump Proposal Boosts Skimpy Insurance Plans, Again Undercutting Obamacare
    66. US and Global Health Care Outlook (2020)
    67. U.S. Healthcare 2020 – 10 Predictions
    68. U.S. Health Care from a Global Perspective: Higher Spending, Worse Outcomes? (2019)
    69. U.S. Health Care & Medical Debt Statistics.
    70. TrumpCare Explained | Obamacare Facts.
    71. President Trump Begins Rolling Back Obamacare.
    72. Sorry, We Don't Take Obamacare
    73. Obamacare Hits a Pothole
    74. Confused by Obamacare?
    75. Obamacare Premiums to Soar 22% On Average
    76. A Critical Analysis of Obamacare: Affordable Care or Insurance
    77. Women and Obamacare
    78. The Politics of Obamacare: Health Care, Money, and Ideology
    79. Transcending Obamacare
    80. Obamacare | Heritage Foundation
    81. Obamacare Woes To Linger Long After Obama Is Gone
    82. Fact Checker: Paul Ryan’s False Claim that ‘Because of Obamacare, Medicare Is Going Broke’.
    83. Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) Articles, Photos, and Videos
    84. Obama Offers Ways to Improve His Health Care Law.
    85. Court Strikes Down Obama Health Care Rule on Insurance Standards.
    86. FDA Reform: A Prescription for More and Better Drugs and Medical Devices.
    87. United States Health Care Reform - Progress to Date and Next Steps.
    88. A Fresh Start for Health Care Reform.
    89. The Importance of Health and Health Care.
    90. Health Insurance and Managed Care.
    91. Year Six of the Affordable Care Act: Obamacare's Mounting Problems.
    92. Repeal and Replace of Affordable Care.
    93. Universal Coverage Reforms in the USA: From Obamacare through Trump.
    94. Donald Trump's Health Care Reform Proposals (2016).
    95. Trump and the Affordable Care Act.
    96. Supreme Court Saves Obamacare.
    97. Obamacare Subsidies Preserved in US Supreme Court Ruling.
    98. The Obama Health Care Legacy: More Coverage and Less Spending.
    99. Health Costs Around the World.
    100. Medicare’s Next 50 Years: Preserving the Program for Future Retirees.
    101. ACA and the Children’s Health Insurance Program.
    102. State Obamacare Exchanges Experience Growing Pains.
    103. Brand-Name Medicines Dominate Medicare's $103 Billion Drug Bill.
    104. Almost Half of Obamacare Exchanges Face Financial Struggles in the Future.
    105. Comparison of the Health Care Systems in Canada and the U.S.
    106. News About Health Care Reform.
    107. More Health Insurance Equals Fewer Deaths in Massachusetts.
    108. The Quality of US Healthcare Compared With the World
    109. Healthcare Insights
    110. Health Care’s Road to Ruin.
    111. GOP Divide over Obama Tax Plan Goes Public.
    112. Factbox - US Healthcare Bill Would Provide Immediate Benefits.
    113. Obama Signs Health Care Overhaul Bill, With a Flourish.
    114. Obama Health Care.
    115. Health Care Reform in the United States.
    116. Health Care in America - Trend in Utilization
    117. Medical Tourism: Treatments, Markets and Health System Implications: A Scoping Review.
    118. International Travel and Health.
    119. U.S. Health Care Reform Progress to Date and Next Steps
    120. Health Reform: How to Improve U.S. Health Care in 2020 and Beyond
    121. Healthcare Reform in the United States
    122. Reforming America's Healthcare System Through Choice and Competition
    123. Health Insurance Reform |
    124. Health Reform | The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation
    125. Comparing Reform Options: From “Building on ACA” to Single Payer
    126. Health at a Glance in the U.S. (2019)
    127. U.S. Health Care from a Global Perspective (2019)
    128. National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Report (2019)
    129. Pushing Up Obamacare Premiums (2019)
    130. Obamacare: Silent on Funding
    131. States Defy Trump on ObamaCare
    132. Future of the Affordable Care Act Remains Uncertain
    133. The Facts on the GOP Health Care Bills
    134. In Major Defeat for Trump, Push to Repeal Health Law Fails
    135. Trump Tastes Failure As U.S. House Healthcare Bill Collapses
    136. House Republicans Pull Health Care Bill
    137. Trumpcare vs. Obamacare
    138. TrumpCare Explained - Obamacare Facts
    139. Pros & Cons of Free Universal Health Care System
    140. Overwhelming Evidence That Obamacare Caused Premiums To Increase Substantially
    141. Obama Health Care Coverage (2017)
    142. Obamacare Enrollment Information: Obamacare 2016 and 2017 OEP
    143. Obama Health Care Coverage (2016) - Marketplace
    144. Obama Health Care Facts: Facts on the Affordable Care Act
    145. Obama Health Care: The Obama Health Care Plan.
    146. The Truth About Those Canceled Health Plans.
    147. Obamacare: Understanding the Affordable Care Act.
    148. Expect Snags in Affordable Care Act Rollout.
    149. The Biggest Myth About Obamacare.
    150. Obamacare Open Enrollment: Here's Everything You Need To Know.
    151. There Are Tradeoffs to Obamacare
    152. Overview of Quality and Access in the U.S. Health Care System (2016)
    153. Health Reform Hits Main Street (Video).
    154. Status of U.S. Coverage and Potential of Health Reform Bills.
    155. Health-Care Changes May Not All Disappear Even If Justices Overturn It.
    156. Paul Ryan's Medicare Proposal Explained.
    157. Health Care Reform and the Supreme Court.
    158. A Critical Test of the Health Care Law.
    159. Health Care Bill
    160. Obamacare Myths.
    161. Did Obamacare Work? Is It a Success or Massive Failure?
    162. The Pros and Cons of Obamacare
    163. Health System Reform in the United States.
    164. History of the Affordable Care Act
    165. History of the U.S. Healthcare System
    166. Implementation History of the Affordable Care Act
    167. A Brief History on the Road to Healthcare Reform: from Truman to Obama
    168. Timeline: History of Health Reform in the U.S.
    169. Healthcare Crisis: Healthcare Timeline.
    170. America's Health Care Reform through History.
    171. A Young Man with Parkinson's Worries About the Costs of a GOP Health Plan.
    172. Physicians Have the Highest Suicide Rate of any Profession. So Why Haven't You Heard About It?.
    173. Health and Health Care in South Africa — 20 Years After Mandela.
    174. Zika's Approach to U.S. Raises Tricky Abortion Questions.
    175. Winter Babies at 'Higher Risk of Mental Health Disorders.
    176. Alzheimers: The Disease that Could Bankrupt Medicare.
    177. Alzheimer's Disease Underdiagnosed in Indian Country.
    178. The Cost Conundrum.
    179. Doctors and Nurses Reveal the Medical Facts.
    180. Secrets the Emergency Room.
    181. U.S. Health Report (2015).
    182. Health Reform: What’s Coming (2013).
    183. Health Coverage in the United States (2013).
    184. Americans Struggling to Pay for Prescription Drugs.
    185. Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States (2012).
    186. Mitigating the Loss of Private Insurance With Public Coverage for the Under-65 Population: 2008 to 2012.
    187. The Obama Health Care Legacy: The Origins, Implementation, and Effort to Repeal the Affordable Care Act of 2010
    188. Affordable Care Act (ACA) - The Comprehensive Health Care Reform Law Enacted in March 2010 (sometimes known as ACA, PPACA, or “Obamacare”).
    189. Health Status, Health Insurance, and Medical Services Utilization (2010).
    190. Employment-Based Health Insurance (2010).
    191. 1 in 3 Americans Is Having a Hard Time Paying Medical Bills.
    192. 5 Myths About the Health Care Law.
    193. 5 Things to Know About Health Care Post-Debate.
    194. 5 Biggest Problems in Health Care Today.
    195. 6 Broken Obamacare Promises: A Retrospective on the ACA's 6th Birthday.
    196. 10 Top Healthcare Charts (2014).
    197. 10 Moments in Health Care That Will Go Down in History.
    198. 15 Charts that Show How Obamacare Works Now
    199. 17 Key Facts About the Affordable Care Act.
    200. 24 Million Reasons the G.O.P. Health-Care Bill Is No Good.
    201. 27+ Affordable Care Act Statistics and Facts
    202. 40 Most Significant Healthcare Milestones of the Past 40 Years.
    203. 53 Interesting Facts About Barack Obama
    204. 2010-2020: Health Care Reform Timeline

    Symptom: Search - Checker - What's Wrong!

    Health - Causes of Death
    (Age-adjusted death rate per 100,000 population)

    News, Outlook, Info, Guides & Tips
    ▷ Healthcare Discussion Forum
    Discussion Forum

    ▷ News, Outlook, Info & Facts
    1. Latest Health News.
    2. Global Health Facts.
    3. Deaths in the United States: Leading Causes for 2019 and 2018
    4. Deaths in the United States: Final Data (2019)
    5. Births in the United States: Final Data for 2019
    6. Most Common Health Problems in Elderly People
    7. An Understanding of Diseases.
    8. List of Human Diseases
    9. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
    10. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) | NIH
    11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
    12. About HIV/AIDS - HIV Basics | CDC
    13. Basic Facts About HIV/AIDS
    14. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome): Fears and Facts
    15. HIV/AIDS in Arizona Annual Report (2021)
    16. HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment
    17. AIDS/HIV Symptoms and Treatment.
    18. HIV/AIDS - Symptoms and Causes
    19. HIV/AIDS: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments, and More
    20. HIV/AIDS Treatment and Care
    21. HIV Statistics and Facts
    22. Rise in HIV Diagnoses Among People over 50 in Europe.
    23. Pathophysiology of HIV/AIDS
    24. The Pathology of AIDS
    25. Doctors May Be Missing Many Cases of Gonorrhea and Chlamydia in Women.
    26. Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis
    27. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea: Screening
    28. Get Tested for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea
    29. Peptic Ulcer Disease (Beyond the Basics)
    30. Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers in Children
    31. Common Lung Diseases Associated with Cardiovascular Risk
    32. A Common Lung Condition that Often Overlaps With Heart Disease
    33. Pulmonary Diseases and the Heart
    34. Cardiovascular Glossary A-Z
    35. Cardiovascular Disease
    36. Cardiovascular Disease and COPD: Dangerous Liaisons
    37. Cardiovascular Disease: A Costly Burden for America Projections Through 2035
    38. Coronary Heart Disease - Treatment
    39. Coronary Heart Disease - Q&A
    40. Comparing Heart Disease Treatments
    41. Heart Failure | Heart and Stroke Foundation
    42. Heart Failure Treatment
    43. Heart Disease: A Price Humans Pay for Fertility?.
    44. Heart Disease Prevention - Strategies to Prevent Heart Disease
    45. Heart Disease & Stroke
    46. Heart Disease and Stroke | CDC
    47. Heart Disease and Stroke | Phrma
    48. Heart Disease Prevention
    49. Heart Disease: Treatment & Care
    50. Heart Disease and Stroke With Diabetes
    51. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – At-a-Glance
    52. Heart Attack and Stroke: Signs and Symptoms
    53. Heart Attack and Stroke Prevention in Women
    54. Heart Attack Pain Similar for Men and Women.
    55. Know Your Risk for Heart Disease
    56. Habitual Tub Bathing and Risks of Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke
    57. An Overview of Cardiovascular Disease and Research
    58. The Warning Signs of Stroke
    59. Avoiding Heart Attacks and Strokes
    60. Strokes on the Rise Among Younger Adults: Study.
    61. Healthy Lifestyle and Life Expectancy Free of Cancer, Cardiovascular Disease, and Type 2 Diabetes
    62. Risk Calculator for Cholesterol Appears Flawed.
    63. Good vs. Bad Cholesterol.
    64. Too Many People Still Ignore Heart Attack Risks.
    65. Really? During a Heart Attack, Dial 911 and Chew an Aspirin.
    66. Will You Have a Heart Attack? These Tests Might Tell.
    67. Can You Recognize a Heart Attack or Stroke?
    68. UVA Discovery Reveals Potential Way to Prevent Heart Attacks, Strokes
    69. Risks for Heart Disease and Stroke
    70. Could It Be Possible to Eliminate Clogged Arteries?.
    71. The Heart Truth for Women.
    72. Living With Atrial Fibrillation
    73. Stiffening of Arteries Detected in Young Adults.
    74. Avoiding Heart Attacks and Strokes
    75. Avoiding Heart Attacks and Strokes | WHO
    76. Preventing a Heart Attack
    77. Common Lung Conditions Linked to Heart Disease
    78. Low Serum Calcium May Increase Risk of Sudden Cardiac Arrest.
    79. Taller People May Be More Susceptible to Blood Clots.
    80. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics Fact Sheet At-a-Glance
    81. Living with Heart Failure
    82. Emotional Changes After Stroke
    83. A Public Health Action Plan to Prevent Heart Disease and Stroke
    84. Heart Health, Stroke and Social Determinents of Health
    85. Quality of Life After Stroke: Impact of Clinical and Sociodemographic Factors
    86. Impact of Multiple Social Determinants of Health on Incident Stroke
    87. Stroke Information Booklet
    88. Stroke Risk Factors, Genetics, and Prevention
    89. Tobacco and Stroke
    90. Alcohol and Stroke
    91. Stroke: Hope Through Research
    92. Pathophysiology of Strokes
    93. Dangers of CT Scans and X-Rays
    94. The Hidden Dangers of Medical Scans
    95. MRI Safety - Video
    96. MRI Safety and Preparation (Video)
    97. CT Scans: Are They Safe?
    98. Routine Cancer Screening: Weighing Risks and Benefits
    99. Should You Worry About the Radiation from CT Scans?
    100. Understanding Radiation Risk from Imaging Test
    101. Stroke: A Brain Attack
    102. Stroke and Brain Injury
    103. Facts About Concussion and Brain Injury
    104. Brain Injury Due to Oxygen Deficiency / Causes
    105. Brain Area Keeps Growing in Adulthood.
    106. Management of Brain Injury After Resuscitation from Cardiac Arrest
    107. Can Celiac Disease Affect the Brain?.
    108. Brain Surgery: Purpose, Types, and Risks.
    109. Resting Brain Activity Varies with Dream Recall Frequency Between Subjects.
    110. The World's Most Famous Brain.
    111. The Most Important Five Minutes of Brain Surgery.
    112. Life After a Brain Injury: 'I'm Not Terrified of Death Anymore'.
    113. Surgery Near the End of Life is Common, Costly — and Often Not What Patients Want
    114. Best Hospitals for Neurology & Neurosurgery.
    115. The Worms That Invade Your Brain.
    116. Researchers Find Lapses in Hospitals' Policies for Determining Brain Death.
    117. Alzheimer's Disease
    118. Alzheimer's Disease Deaths up 55 Percent.
    119. Alzheimer's Breakthrough: Potential Cause of the Disease.
    120. New Link Between Diabetes, Alzheimer's Found.
    121. Alzheimer's May Vary, Brain to Brain.
    122. Tumors: Benign, Premalignant and Malignant.
    123. Pediatric Brain Tumor Research: Unique Challenges and Opportunities.
    124. Breakthrough Replicates Human Brain Cells for Use in Alzheimer’s Research
    125. Aggressive Behavior After Stroke: Navigating Anger Outbursts
    126. Assessing Stroke - Scores & Scales
    127. Acute Ischemic Stroke
    128. Acute Ischemic Stroke: Current Status and Future Directions
    129. Acute Ischemic Stroke: Management Approach
    130. Acute Ischemic Stroke Management
    131. Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke
    132. Sex Differences in the Risk of Recurrent Ischemic Stroke After Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack
    133. Effects of Antiplatelet Therapy After Stroke.
    134. Cardiovascular Risks of Hypertension
    135. Health Threats from High Blood Pressure
    136. High Blood Pressure Dangers: Hypertension's Effects on Your Body
    137. High Blood Pressure Symptoms and Causes
    138. Blood Pressure: Know Your Numbers
    139. Understanding and Controlling High Blood Pressure
    140. Blood Pressure Lowering for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Death
    141. Improving Blood Pressure Control Heart, Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes Prevention ...
    142. The Role of Blood Pressure in Risk of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke in Type 1 Diabetes
    143. High Blood Pressure Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
    144. The Risk Factors of High Blood Pressure among Young Adults
    145. High Blood Pressure Risk Factors
    146. Blood Pressure Matters: Keep Hypertension in Check
    147. Blood Pressure and Your Brain
    148. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
    149. High Blood Pressure and Stroke
    150. Risk Factors: Systolic Blood Pressure
    151. Risks of Untreated Hypertension - A Discussion.
    152. Childhood Blood Pressure Trends and Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
    153. High Blood Pressure & Kidney Disease
    154. High Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Disease - Hypertension
    155. Follow-up of Blood-Pressure Lowering and Glucose Control in Type 2 Diabetes.
    156. Fragrance Allergy & Sensitivity: Symptoms Prevention and Treatment
    157. The Difference Between Allergies and Asthma
    158. Facts About Allergy-Induced Asthma.
    159. Surprising Signs of Adult-Onset Asthma.
    160. Monitoring Trends in Lung Disease: Data & Statistics.
    161. Mysterious Disease Caused By Vaping.
    162. Monkeypox Symptoms, Causes, Pictures, Diagnosis, and Treatment
    163. Monkeypox (Poxvirus) Signs and Symptoms | CDC
    164. Monkeypox:Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention
    165. Possible Link Between Blood Type and COVID-19 ...
    166. Blood Type Could Be Linked to COVID-19 Risk and Severity ...
    167. COVID-19 and Blood Type
    168. COVID-19 Impact: Brain, Lung and Heart
    169. Long-term Health Effects of Coronavirus (COVID-19)
    170. Coronavirus and Heart Disease
    171. COVID-19's Consequences for the Heart
    172. Potential Effects of Coronaviruses on the Cardiovascular System
    173. Cardiac Manifestations of Coronavirus (COVID-19)
    174. COVID-19: Mask Mystery: Why Are US Officials Dismissive of Protective Covering?
    175. Estimates Show Wuhan Coronavirus Death Toll Far Higher Than Official Figure.
    176. Coronavirus (COVID-19).
    177. Novel Coronavirus (nCoV)
    178. Severe Outcomes Among Patients with Coronavirus COVID-19 Disease
    179. Are You at Higher Risk for Severe Coronavirus COVID-19 Illness?
    180. The Mysterious Disappearance of the First SARS Virus
    181. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV)
    182. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV)
    183. 1918 Pandemic (H1N1 Virus) | Pandemic Influenza (Flu)
    184. 1918 Influenza: The Mother of All Pandemics
    185. Spanish Flu - Symptoms, How It Began & Ended
    186. Diabetes: Cutting Carbohydrates May Help.
    187. Global Report on Diabetes.
    188. Diabetes: Symptoms and Causes
    189. Diabetes Symptoms, Causes, & Treatment
    190. Symptoms & Causes of Diabetes
    191. An Overview of Diabetes Types and Treatments
    192. FDA Warns Diabetics Against Use of Secondhand Test Strips
    193. Gestational Diabetes Fact Sheet
    194. Understanding Gestational Diabetes - Fact Sheet
    195. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    196. Diabetes Mellitus Management of Gestational Diabetes
    197. Screening, Diagnosis, and Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    198. Diagnosis and Treatment of Gestational Diabetes
    199. Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy | CDC
    200. Management of Diabetes in Pregnancy
    201. Gestational Diabetes: Screening Strategies, Glycemic Targets and Pharmacologic Management
    202. Blood Sugar Levels & Ranges (Low, Normal & High) Chart
    203. WHO Proposed Sugar Recommendation Comes to Less Than a Soda per Day.
    204. Migraines to Cluster Headaches: The Most Painful Headaches.
    205. Migraine – More than a Headache
    206. Acute Migraine Treatment
    207. Migraine Headache Prophylaxis
    208. Migraine - Diagnosis and Treatment.
    209. Acute Migraine Headache: Treatment Strategies
    210. Migraine: Diagnotics and Management
    211. Pathophysiology of Migraine
    212. The Pathophysiology of Migraine: Implications for Clinical Management
    213. Headaches
    214. Myasthenia Gravis: Symptoms and Causes.
    215. Mesothelioma: Symptoms and Causes
    216. Can a Mesothelioma Prognosis Be Improved?.
    217. Malignant Mesothelioma Treatment–Patient Version.
    218. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: An Update on Diagnosis and Treatment Options.
    219. Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: An Epidemiological Perspective.
    220. U.S. OD Death Rate Worst Among Wealthier Nations.
    221. Human Body Facts and Trivia.
    222. Myths About IVF, Surrogacy and Adoption.
    223. Gender Prediction Kits: Are They Accurate?.
    224. UK Scientists Edit DNA of Human Embryos.
    225. New STD Cases Hit Record High in US.
    226. Chronic Kidney Disease Basics
    227. Chronic Kidney Disease: Symptoms and Cause
    228. Kidney Disease: Types, Symptoms, Causes and Treatment
    229. Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)
    230. Chronic Kidney Disease Stages: Symptoms & Treatment
    231. Fluoride May Affect Kidney and Liver Function.
    232. Kidneys from Deceased Diabetics Might Ease Organ Shortage.
    233. Understanding Diverticulosis.
    234. Stomach Ache: Causes, Treatment, Medicine - Pain in Left, Right, Lower Abdomen
    235. Quick Facts: Gastroesophageal Reflux (GERD)
    236. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) and Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR)
    237. Treatment of Viral Gastroenteritis (“Stomach Flu”)
    238. Is It Acid Reflux or GERD?
    239. Acid Reflux, Heartburn, and GERD Basics & Causes
    240. Acid Reflux Causes, Treatment, and Symptoms
    241. GERD Facts and Statistics
    242. Zika Damages at All Stages of Pregnancy.
    243. Abdominal Pain: Symptoms, Treatment, Causes, Relief & Diet
    244. Stomach Pain in Intervals: Causes, Treatment, Seeing a Doctor
    245. Sessile Polyp: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment
    246. Colon and Rectal Polyps
    247. Colon Polyps (Beyond the Basics)
    248. All About Colon Polyps.
    249. Colorectal Polyp - An Overview.
    250. Polyps of the Colon and Rectum.
    251. The “Difficult” Colorectal Polyps and Adenomas: Practical Aspects
    252. Understanding a Pathology Report: Colon Polyps (Sessile or Traditional Serrated Adenomas)
    253. They Found Colon Polyps: Now What?
    254. Understanding Polyps and Their Treatment
    255. Hangnails: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment
    256. This Ancestor Gave Herpes to Humans
    257. Eating Polyunsaturated Fats Linked to Slowing Diabetes Progress for Some
    258. Infections and Infectious Diseases
    259. Tuberculosis
    260. Tuberculosis: Definition, Cause, Symptoms, & Treatment
    261. Tuberculosis: Symptoms and Causes
    262. Tuberculosis Mortality Nearly Halved since 1990.
    263. Nearly 3 Million Americans Living With Hepatitis C.
    264. Lower Abdominal Pain: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment
    265. Hepatitis C and Opioids.
    266. Joint Pain: Causes, Home Remedies, and Complications
    267. Aging Knee, Knee Pain, and Hip Pain
    268. Knee Pain: Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment
    269. Joint Pain and Arthritis | CDC
    270. Diagnostic Approach to Polyarticular Joint Pain
    271. Joint Pain a Problem? Find out the What Causes, Signs, & Pain Relief Options!
    272. Managing Arthritis Pain | GWU
    273. Managing Your Arthritis Pain
    274. Living Your Life with Rheumatoid Arthritis.
    275. Pregnant Women with Epilepsy at Increased Risk of Dying During Childbirth.
    276. C-Section Births Significantly Raise Blood Clot Risk.
    277. Anesthesiologist Trashes Sedated Patient — and It Ends Up Costing Her.
    278. The Man Who Cut Out His Own Appendix
    279. Ebola Virus Disease in West Africa — The First 9 Months of the Epidemic and Forward Projections.
    280. Human Skin Cells Reprogrammed Directly into Brain Cells
    281. The Freaky Thing Your Brain Can Do While You're Asleep.
    282. Sleep Disorders - Symptoms and Causes.
    283. Insomnia in Adults Linked to Heart Attack and Stroke
    284. Sleepless Nights Could Raise Heart Risks
    285. Sleep Duration and Myocardial Infarction
    286. Insomnia Could Raise Risk of Heart Disease and Death in Men.
    287. Stem Cell Research Papers Are Retracted.
    288. Fastest Ways to Overcome Baby’s 4 Months Sleep Regression.
    289. Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome.
    290. Sleep Apnea - Symptoms and Causes.
    291. The Effects of Sleep Apnea on the Body.
    292. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Fatty Liver: Association or Causal Link?.
    293. Young Blood May Hold Key to Reversing Aging.
    294. The Comeback of Polio Is a Public Health Emergency.
    295. Pelvic Floor Muscle Spasm: Symptoms and Treatments
    296. Muscle Spasms, Causes, and Diagnosis
    297. Muscle Spasm Causes, Treatment, Types & Duration
    298. Muscle Spasms (Muscle Cramps): Causes, Pain Relief & Treatment
    299. More Complicated Than 'Pink Viagra': What You Should Know About Flibanserin (Addyi).
    300. Declines in Births to Females Aged 10–14 in the United States, 2000–2016.
    301. Scientists Edge Closer Towards First Pancreatitis Treatment
    302. Smokers May Have Increased Risk of Pancreatitis.
    303. Autism Spectrum Disorder
    304. Autism and Related Disorders
    305. Autism Medical Comorbidities
    306. Autism Spectrum Disorder - Symptoms and Causes
    307. Autism Spectrum Disorder Fact Sheet
    308. Common Comorbid Conditions in ASD - Autism Resources
    309. Autism and Co-Occurring Conditions
    310. Signs and Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders
    311. Autism in Women: Signs, Diagnosis, and Treatment
    312. No Link Between Celiac Disease and Autism.
    313. FDA Warns Against Bogus Autism 'Cures'.
    314. Researchers Make Progress in Autism Studies.
    315. Everyone Could Use a Little More Autism Awareness
    316. Common Health Problems in Children
    317. Common Health Problems in Babies & Infants
    318. Premature Baby Health Problems
    319. Famous Doctors.
    320. The Most Famous Doctor in the Last 50 Years?.
    321. Castle Connolly Top Doctors List (2021)
    322. Best U.S. Hospitals (2020-2021)
    323. Best U.S. Hospitals (2019-2020)
    324. Best Doctors in America.
    325. Best Doctors: Search for a Doctor (2019)
    326. Best Doctors in America (2018)
    327. Top Well-Known Doctors.
    328. Doctors by Specialty - Doctor Reviews.
    329. The Oldest Medical Books in the World.
    330. Neurological Disorders A-Z.
    331. Medical Terminology
    332. 1 in 12 Americans Lives With Debilitating Chronic Pain.
    333. 5 Ways to Prevent a Heart Attack.
    334. 5 Things You Need to Know About Zika.
    335. 5 Most Mysterious Diseases on Earth (video).
    336. 5 Mysteries of the Brain.
    337. 5 Rare Mental Disorders.
    338. 5 of the World's Most Ultra-Rare Diseases.
    339. 5 Facts About Acid Reflux.
    340. 5 Fast Facts About Acid Reflux.
    341. 6 Ancient Treatments Doctors Still Use.
    342. 6 Serious Medical Symptoms.
    343. 6 Strangest Medieval Diseases.
    344. 6 Reasons Healthcare Is So Expensive in the U.S..
    345. 7 Unusual Ancient Medical Techniques.
    346. 7 Things to Prevent a Stroke.
    347. 7 Facts About GERD and Acid Reflux.
    348. 8 Things to Know About the U.S. COVID-19 Vaccination Program.
    349. 10 Strangest Known Medical Conditions.
    350. 10 Top Mysterious Diseases.
    351. 10 Mystery Diseases.
    352. 10 Weirdest Diseases.
    353. 10 Common Elderly Health Issues
    354. 10 Common Childhood Illnesses and Their Treatments
    355. 10 Common Health Problems Among Newborns and Infants
    356. 10 Controversial Psychiatric Disorders.
    357. 10 Surprising Alzheimer’s Predictors.
    358. 10 Signs You Might Have Hip Arthritis
    359. 10 Common Medications That Cause Joint Pain
    360. 10 Top Causes of Death in the U.S.
    361. 10 Top Causes of Death Worldwide
    362. 10 Top Most Common Chronic Diseases for Older Adults
    363. 10 Top Doctors Around the World.
    364. 10 Things to Do for Your Mental Health.
    365. 10 Places Where Health Insurance Costs the Most.
    366. 10 Doctors Who Changed the World.
    367. 12 Famous Doctors of Medicine.
    368. 12 Most Debilitating Diseases.
    369. 12 Strange Diseases and Syndromes.
    370. 12 Common Old Age Health Problems and Solutions
    371. 15 Most Horrifying Mental Disorders of All Time.
    372. 15 Most Common Health Concerns for Seniors
    373. 15 Common Health Problems and Diseases in Babies
    374. 20 Most Innovative Surgeons Alive Today.
    375. 20 Highest-Ranked U.S. Hospitals (2020)
    376. 23-Year-Old Woman With Diffuse Muscle and Joint Pain
    377. 25 Interesting Facts About Surgeons and Surgery
    378. 25 Most Influential Physicians in the Past Century.
    379. 27 Unexpected Pregnancy Symptoms and Signs.
    380. 30 of the Oldest Medical Schools in the World.
    381. 100 Great Hospitals in America (2020)
    382. 100 Top Hospitals (2020)
    383. 100 Top Hospitals - Performance Evaluation & Leadership Impact (2020)
    384. 195 UVA Physicians Chosen for 'Best Doctors in America'.
    385. 225 Top Hospitals (2019)
    ▷ Cancer
    1. Cancer as a Disease
    2. Cancer Basics
    3. Cancer Fact Sheets |
    4. An Update on Cancer Deaths in the United States
    5. Cancer Facts & Figures (2022)
    6. Cancer Deaths in US Declined by 2% Every Year Since 2016
    7. The True Causes of Cancer
    8. An Introduction to Cancer and Basic Cancer Vocabulary
    9. List of Cancer Types
    10. Kinds of Cancer | CDC
    11. Types of Common Cancers
    12. Common Cancer Types | National Cancer Institute
    13. Common Cancer Myths and Misconceptions
    14. Myths and Facts About Cancer
    15. Understanding Maintenance Therapy - Treatment of Cancer with Medication
    16. Types of Cancer Treatment |
    17. After Endometrial Cancer Treatment
    18. Cancer: In Depth
    19. Cancer, Cancer Information, Facts, News, Photos
    20. Introduction to Cancer Biology.
    21. Chances of Cancer Surviving - Interactive Risk Charts
    22. Age and Cancer Risk
    23. Lifetime Risk of Cancer
    24. Cancer Risk Factors and Causes
    25. Risk Factors for Cancer
    26. Causes of Cancer.
    27. Cancer Causes, Risks, and Prevention
    28. Cancer: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention
    29. Cancer: Early Detection and Control | WHO
    30. Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment | WHO
    31. Cancer Patients in SARS-CoV-2 Infection.
    32. Overview of Cancer and Cancer Treatment.
    33. Cancer - Symptoms and Causes
    34. New Ideas in Cancer Treatment
    35. The Many Ways Cancer Was Treated in the Ancient World
    36. Cancer Treatment Breakthroughs
    37. Understanding Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment
    38. Types of Cancer Treatments
    39. Cancer Cases and Treatments
    40. Chemicals, Cancer, and You
    41. Cancer Treatment and Survivorship Facts & Figures 2019-2021
    42. Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer (2020).
    43. Targeted Therapies: A New Generation of Cancer Treatments
    44. The Costs of Cancer.
    45. Nutrition in Cancer
    46. Cancer Treatment Options.
    47. Cancer: Overview, Causes, Treatments, and Types.
    48. Immunotherapy for All Cancer Types.
    49. Chemotherapy: Uses, Side Effects, and Procedure.
    50. Chemotherapy and Your Mouth
    51. Treatment and Support for Stomach Cancer.
    52. Facts and Information About Blood Cancer.
    53. Effects of Anti-Cancer Drugs on Organs and Body Systems
    54. Side Effects of Cancer.
    55. Imminent Global Cancer 'Disaster' Reflects Aging, Lifestyle Factors | WHO
    56. Cancer and the Environment.
    57. Studies Link Cancer Patients' Survival Time to Insurance Status.
    58. Cancer and Oxidative Stress.
    59. Is There a Cure for Cancer?.
    60. Cancer: Facts, Causes, Symptoms and Research.
    61. Medicare Coverage of Cancer Treatment Services |
    62. Long-Term Side Effects of Cancer Treatment.
    63. Alzheimer's Toll May Rank with Cancer and Heart Disease.
    64. Alzheimer's Tied to Less Cancer, and Vice Versa.
    65. Antibiotic 'Link to Bowel Cancer Precursor'.
    66. A Better Way to Treat Cancer.
    67. The Truth Behind Three Natural Cancer “Cures”.
    68. Most Cancers in Our World Pandemic Are Preventable.
    69. Do CT Scans Cause Cancer?
    70. Problems with CT Scans for Cancer Diagnosis
    71. CT Scans May Increase Risk of Brain Cancer
    72. Cancer Screening for Older Patients: More Harm than Good?
    73. In Cancer War, Patients and Doctors Worry About Unneeded Cancer Scans and Therapy.
    74. Cell Phones and Cancer Risk Fact Sheet
    75. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk
    76. Benzene and Cancer Risk
    77. The Psychosocial Needs of Cancer Patients - Cancer Care for the Whole Patient
    78. Cancer Diagnosis and Mental Health
    79. Cancer Immunotherapy at a Crossroads.
    80. Training the Immune System to Fight Cancer Has 19th-Century Roots.
    81. Gum Disease Bacteria Associated with Esophageal Cancer.
    82. Oral Bacteria May Double Risk of Pancreatic Cancer.
    83. Protein Found to Play Key Role in the Spread of of Pancreatic Cancer.
    84. The Startling Rise in Oral Cancer in Men, and What It Says About our Changing Sexual Habits.
    85. More U.S. Women Living Longer with Advanced Breast Cancer.
    86. Brain Tumor
    87. The Most Common Brain Tumor.
    88. Deadly Brain Cancer Genes Identified.
    89. Brain Cancer Is Now the Leading Cancer Killer of Kids.
    90. Brain Tumors Now Top Cancer Killer of Kids.
    91. Kidney Cancer
    92. Early Stage Kidney Cancer
    93. Kidney Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging
    94. Understanding Kidney Cancer
    95. Kidney Cancer 101
    96. Questions and Answers About Kidney Cancer
    97. Basic Information About Prostate Cancer
    98. Guys: You Don't Want That PSA Test for Prostate Cancer.
    99. Prostate Cancer Diagnosis: Do You Need a Second Opinion?
    100. Hormone Therapy for Prostate Cancer Linked With Depression.
    101. Prostate Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment.
    102. Prostate Cancer Basics: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, Side ...
    103. Prostate Cancer Treatments Have Varying Side Effects, Study Shows
    104. Prostate Cancer: Urine 'Sniff Test' May Reduce Unwarranted Biopsies.
    105. Prostate Cancer Stages | Johns Hopkins Medicine.
    106. Prostate Cancer Stages and Other Ways to Assess Risk
    107. Advanced Prostate Cancer: Managing Symptoms and Getting Support
    108. Black Men With Prostate Cancer May Live Longer Than White Men.
    109. Researchers Uncover Process That Drives Prostate Cancer Metastasis.
    110. To Treat or Not to Treat Prostate Cancer?
    111. Heart Cancer: Is There Such a Thing?.
    112. Gastric Cancer | Johns Hopkins Medicine.
    113. Gastric Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment Options
    114. Malignant Hypercalcaemia - Definition, Symptoms and Treatment
    115. Malignant Mesothelioma Cancer - Stages, Prognosis, Treatment
    116. Lung Cancer.
    117. Basic Information About Lung Cancer | CDC
    118. Lung Cancer Fact Sheet
    119. Lung Cancer: The World's Deadliest Cancer
    120. Is Lung Cancer Screening Right for You?
    121. Treatment of Lung Cancer
    122. Lung Cancer Symptoms.
    123. Lung Cancer - Symptoms and Causes
    124. Surprising Lung Cancer Symptoms.
    125. Lung Cancer: Diagnosis, Treatment Principles, and Screening
    126. Lung Cancer: Causes, Stages, Life Expectancy, and More.
    127. First New Treatment Approved for Small Cell Lung Cancer in 20 Years.
    128. New Immunotherapy for Lung Cancer.
    129. AI Took a Test to Detect Lung Cancer.
    130. Lung Cancer: Biology and Treatment Options
    131. Alcohol, Processed Meats May Raise Stomach Cancer Risk.
    132. The Stomach, Gastritis, Stomach Polyps, Stomach Cancer.
    133. Stomach Cancer Diagnostics — New Insights on Stages of Tumor Growth
    134. Liver Cancer | NCBI.
    135. Liver Cancer Risk Factors.
    136. Understanding Cancer in the Liver.
    137. Colorectal Tumors Exacerbated by Mouth Microbes.
    138. Keep Colon Cancer at Bay
    139. Colon Polyps: Symptoms, Causes, Cancer Risk, Treatment, and Prevention
    140. Colorectal Cancer Screening and Surveillances.
    141. Colorectal Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention
    142. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Risk Factors
    143. Colorectal Cancer: Screening (Recommendation)
    144. Colorectal Cancer Facts & Figures 2020-2022
    145. That Polyp Has Cancer?
    146. New Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer.
    147. Simpler Home Test for Colon Cancer Offered.
    148. Colorectal Cancer Screening Tests.
    149. Colorectal Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging
    150. Could Loss of a Hormone Drive Colon Cancer?.
    151. Mis-Sizing of Adenomatous Polyps Is Common among Endoscopists and Impacts Colorectal Cancer Screening Recommendations
    152. Pancreatic Cancer | The Lancet.
    153. Pancreatic Cancer Handbook.
    154. Pancreatic Cancer: A Review of Clinical Diagnosis.
    155. All About Pancreatic Cancer.
    156. Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (PDQ®) Patient Version.
    157. Pancreatic Cancer: A Review of Clinical Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Treatment and Outcomes.
    158. Pancreatic Cancer Treatment (Adult)
    159. Pancreatic Cancer Stages 4, Symptoms, Treatment, Causes
    160. Pancreatic Cancer Will Be 2nd Deadliest Cancer by 2030
    161. Novel Drug Therapy Kills Pancreatic Cancer Cells by Reducing Levels of Antioxidants.
    162. New Research to Combat Pancreatic Cancer.
    163. Pancreatic Cancer: Causes and Symptoms.
    164. Pancreatic Cancer Center: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatments.
    165. Signs and Symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer.
    166. Pancreatic Cancer Stages.
    167. Pancreatic Cancer Treatments by Stage.
    168. Cervical Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging
    169. An Introduction to Breast Cancer.
    170. Types of Breast Cancer Tumors.
    171. Breast Cancer Risk and Prevention.
    172. Is There a Link Between Breast-Feeding and Breast Cancer?
    173. Breast Cancer Linked to Bacterial Imbalances?
    174. Breast Cancers Predicted to Rise by 50 Percent by 2030.
    175. Breast Cancer - Diagnosis and Treatment
    176. Breast Cancer Information - An Overview.
    177. Breast Cancer Facts & Figures (2019-2020)
    178. Breast Cancer: Symptoms, Stages, Types Causes, and Treatment.
    179. Breast Cancer: Symptoms, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, Treatment ...
    180. Breast Cancer Myths: Separating Fact from Fiction.
    181. Nutrition & Breast Cancer
    182. Cancer, Common Cancer Types and Mortality Rates in the United States
    183. Thyroid Gland.
    184. Cancer Death Rate Continues Steady Drop.
    185. Cancer Statistics Report: Death Rate Down 23% in 21 Years.
    186. Cancer Death Rates Down 23 Percent Since 1991: Study.
    187. Blood Test 'Boost' in Ovarian Cancer Fight.
    188. Immunotherapy for Rare Skin Cancer.
    189. Skin Cancer and Rashes: Cancerous and Precancerous Lesions.
    190. Skin Cancer in Skin of Color
    191. About Skin Cancer
    192. Skin Cancer Facts & Statistics
    193. Action to Prevent Skin Cancer
    194. Most Dangerous Cancers in Men and Women
    195. Spotting Cancer in a Vial of Blood.
    196. Common Treatment for Early Prostate Cancer May Carry Heart Risk.
    197. FDA Warns 14 Companies on Bogus Cancer 'Cures'.
    198. Woman’s Blood Cancer Killed by Measles Virus in Unprecedented Trial.
    199. Cancer in Children & Adolescents.
    200. Surgeon General Links Colon Cancer, Diabetes to Smoking.
    201. High Cholesterol Diagnosis Tied to Lower Breast Cancer Risk.
    202. Experts Call for Redefinition of 'Cancer'.
    203. New Risk Factor for Mouth Cancer Uncovered.
    204. Cancer, Chemo May Lower Alzheimer's Risk, Study Suggests..
    205. Cancer May Get Help from Immune Cells.
    206. Surgery for Penile Cancer.
    207. Addressing Your Cancer Risk.
    208. Cancer Care Twice as Costly in U.S. Versus Canada.
    209. Genome's Dark Matter Offers Clues to Major Challenge in Prostate Cancer.
    210. Cancer and Cancer Therapeutics.
    211. Cancer Facts & Figures: 2020 - 2019 - 2018 - 2017 - 2016
    212. Rare Cancers in Adults.
    213. Types of Rare Cancers.
    214. "Families" and List of Rare Cancers | Rare Cancers Europe.
    215. About Rare Cancers | Cancer Research UK.
    216. FDA Approves First U.S. Gene Therapy Treatment for Cancer.
    217. Coffee Drinkers Need Cancer Warning, Judge Rules, Giving Sellers the Jitters.
    218. "Aetna Needed to Pay’; Jury Awards $25M to Oklahoma Family of Cancer Patient Denied Coverage
    219. A to Z List of Cancer Types | National Cancer Institute.
    220. 1 in 5 U.S. Cancers Is 'Rare'.
    221. 5 Breakthroughs in Cancer Detection and Treatment.
    222. 5 Cancer Treatments That Aren't Chemotherapy
    223. 5 Top Deadliest Cancers
    224. 5 Top Deadliest Cancers | WebMD
    225. 5 Most Dangerous Cancers Affecting Women
    226. 7 Steps to Prevent Cancer.
    227. 7 Most Curable Cancers Based on 5-Year Relative Survival
    228. 9 Early Signs of Lung Cancer
    229. 10 Most Promising Experimental Cancer Treatments
    230. 10 Commandments of Cancer Prevention
    231. 10 Things You Should Do If You Are Diagnosed with Cancer
    232. 10 Things You Need to Know About Blood Cancer
    233. 10 Most Fatal Types of Cancer
    234. 10 Deadliest Cancers and Why There's No Cure
    235. 11 Facts About Leukemia and Other Blood Cancers
    236. 17 Interesting Cancer Facts You Need to Know
    237. 27+ Breast Cancer Statistics and Facts (2021)
    238. 45 Interesting Facts About Cancer/a>
    239. 47 Interesting Facts About Cancer
    240. 52 Important Facts About Breast Cancer
    ▷ Eye, Ear, Nose, Throat & Mouth Diseases
    1. Top Causes of Eye Problems
    2. Dangerous Eye Problems You Should Never Ignore
    3. Top Causes of Eye Problems
    4. Eye Diseases | GARD
    5. Eye Diseases
    6. Eye Disease: Types, Diagnosis, Treatments, & Facts | Britannica
    7. Eye Conditions and Diseases
    8. Eye Disease Statistics Fact Sheet
    9. Eye Diseases and Disorders
    10. Eye Disorders
    11. Visual Problems After Stroke
    12. Common Eye Disorders and Diseases | CDC
    13. Common Eye Disorders & Diseases That Cause Vision Problems
    14. Systemic Disease and the Eye
    15. Woman's Eye Infection Due to Brain-Eating Amoeba From Contact Lenses
    16. Eye Problems May Be Tied to Zika, Lab Study Suggests
    17. Understanding Common Eye Diseases
    18. Age-Related Eye Diseases and Conditions
    19. Epidemiology of Eye Disease in the Elderly
    20. Age-Related Eye Diseases and Conditions
    21. Vision Impairment and Blindness
    22. Blindness: Causes, Type, Treatment & Symptoms
    23. Prevention and Management of Diabetes-Related Eye Disease
    24. Eye Health and Sight Loss Stats and Facts
    25. Causes of Blindness and Vision Impairment and Trends over 30 Years (2020)
    26. Types of Eye Surgery
    27. Partial Recovery of Visual Function in a Blind Patient After Optogenetic Therapy
    28. The Role of Fish Oil in Inflammatory Eye Diseases
    29. Differentiate Red Eye Disorders
    30. Case Studies in Dry Eye Disease, Glaucoma, and Diabetic Macular Edema
    31. Refractive Errors, Eye Exams, Eye Diseases and the Optical Shop
    32. Economic Burden of Vision Loss and Eye Disorders in the United States
    33. Eye Diseases - Glaucoma | MedlinePlus
    34. Understanding and Living with Glaucoma
    35. Glaucoma - Diagnosis and Treatment
    36. Glaucoma - A Eye Disorder Its Causes, Risk Factor, Prevention and Medication
    37. Eye Diseases and Problems – Glaucoma
    38. Dry Eyes - Symptoms and Causes | Mayo Clinic
    39. Dry Eye Disease - Glaucoma
    40. Glaucoma-Deep: Detection of Glaucoma Eye Disease on Retinal Fundus Images Using Deep Learning
    41. Detection of Glaucoma Disease from Optical Images Using Image Processing and Machine Learning Techniques
    42. Glaucoma: An Eye or a Brain Disease?
    43. Retinal Diseases: Symptoms and Causes
    44. Eye Diseases: Common Retinal Disorders, Symptoms, Causes
    45. Retinal Disorders - Retina - Macular Degeneration
    46. Retina Degeneration - An overview
    47. Inherited Retinal Diseases
    48. Blindness and Visual Impairment Due to Retinal Diseases
    49. Inherited Retinal Diseases Are the Most Common Cause of Blindness ...
    50. Night Blindness (Nyctalopia): Definition, Causes & Symptoms
    51. Visual Impairement Including Blindness Guidance Handbook
    52. Binocular Double Vision – A Review
    53. Introduction to Normal Binocular Vision
    54. Binocular Vision
    55. Bipolar Disorder Signs and Symptoms.
    56. Monocular vs Binocular Diplopia
    57. Double Trouble: Post‐Surgical Strabismus
    58. Cataract Surgery: Risk Management Recommendations
    59. Understanding Cataracts
    60. Cataract Basics
    61. Cataracts | National Eye Institute
    62. Cataract Data and Statistics
    63. Eye Diseases Cataract and Dry Eye
    64. Cataract Surgery and Dry Eye Disease: A Review
    65. Benefits and Harms of Femtosecond Laser Assisted Cataract Surgery: A Systematic Review
    66. Eye Surgery & Procedures
    67. Comparing Laser-Assisted vs. Conventional Refractive Cataract Surgery.
    68. Multifocal Intraocular Lenses: ReSTOR and Tecnis Multifocal IOL.
    69. The Great Debate: Monofocal vs. Multifocal.
    70. Cataract Surgery
    71. Cataract Surgery | Wikipedia
    72. Cataract Surgery | Johns Hopkins Medicine
    73. Cataract Surgery & Treatment
    74. Number of People Blind or Visually Impaired by Cataract ...
    75. Laser Surgery for Cataracts: Prep, Recovery, Long-Term Care
    76. Glossary of Common Eye & Vision Conditions.
    77. The Truth About Cataracts and Cataract Surgery.
    78. Statins Tied to Cataract Risk.
    79. Intraocular Lens Implant Reduces Need For Reading Glasses.
    80. Surgery: Eye and Ocular Adnexa
    81. Bladeless Cataract Eye Surgery - Advanced Laser Cataract Operation
    82. Laser Cataract Surgery
    83. Congenital Cataract and Its Genetics: The Era of Next-Generation Sequencing
    84. Management of Cataract
    85. Keep an Eye on Your Vision Health | CDC
    86. Types of Refractive Laser Eye Surgery
    87. Vision Correction Surgery/Lasik Types, Risks & Options
    88. Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders |
    89. Ear, Nose, and Throat Diseases
    90. Diseases of the Ear, Nose and Throat
    91. Diseases of the Ear, Nose and Throat (Lecture Notes)
    92. Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases
    93. The Most Common Ear, Nose and Throat Problems
    94. Nose, Nasal Sinuses, and Face Diseases
    95. Ear Disorders and Problems
    96. Ear Diseases and Disorders
    97. Common Diseases of the Ear
    98. Itchy Ears
    99. Diseases of the Ear and Mastoid Process (H60-H95)
    100. Diagnosis of Ear Pain
    101. Acute and Chronic Diseases of the External Ear
    102. Prevalence of Ear, Nose, and Throat Diseases
    103. External Ear Diseases: A Clinical Update and Radiologic Review
    104. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease and Treatment Protocol
    105. First User-Fitted Hearing Aid Approved.
    106. Ménière’s Disease
    107. The Pathophysiology of the Ear
    108. Inner Ear Disorders
    109. Diseases of the Middle Ear
    110. Middle Ear Diseases
    111. Hearing Disorders and Audiogram Interpretation
    112. Pattern of Ear, Nose, and Throat Disease ...
    113. Ear Nose and Throat Handbook
    114. Researchers Find Proteins That Might Restore Damaged Sound-Detecting Cells in the Ear.
    115. Diseases of the Ear, Diseases of the Ear, Nose, and Throat
    116. Head, Eyes, Ear, Nose and Throat
    117. Granulomatous Diseases of the Nose
    118. Understanding Common Communicable Diseases
    119. Throat Problems - Pharyngeal Disorders
    120. Throat Infection - Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders
    121. Swallowing Disorders | Johns Hopkins Medicine
    122. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease
    123. Epidemiological Characteristics of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Yunnan Province, China, 2008–2019
    124. Mouth Disorders - Common Mouth Problems | MedlinePlus
    125. The Aging Mouth - and How to Keep It Younger | Harvard Health
    126. Tooth Disorders.
    127. Overview of Tooth Disorders - Mouth and Dental Disorders
    128. Tooth Problems
    129. Tooth Plaque Causes, Prevention, and Treatments.
    130. Tooth Cavities, Tooth Decay - Symptoms and Causes.
    131. Panoramic Dental X-ray
    132. Dental Cone Beam CT
    133. Safety in X-ray, Radiation Safety
    134. The Most Common Dental Problems for Over-60s and How to Treat Them
    135. Deteriorating Teeth With Old Age
    136. Tooth Loss in Seniors
    137. Dental Care for Seniors
    138. Older Adults and Tooth Loss | CDC
    139. Mouth Diseases
    140. Mouth Diseases Names List with Symptoms, Causes and Treatment
    141. Oral Manifestations of Systemic Disease
    142. The Effects of Oral Health on Systemic Health
    143. Root Canal Explained
    144. Root Canal Treatment.
    145. Root Canal Treatment | CDA
    146. Root Canal: Cause, Diagnosis, Treatment, Side Effects & Recovery
    147. Root Canals : Process, Causes, Problems, Surgery, and Recovery.
    148. Root Canal Procedure Step-by-Step
    149. Root Canal: Purpose, Procedure, and Risks
    150. Dental Health and Root Canals.
    151. The Truth Behind Root Canals
    152. Root Canals: The Horrible Truth Revealed
    153. The Latest in Endodontic Research.
    154. Types of Dentures & Their Costs
    155. Dental Implants Cost and Candidacy.
    156. Dental Implants Procedure, Cost, Types, Problems & Safe.
    157. Dental Implant Procedure.
    158. Dental Implant Surgery.
    159. Dental Implant Restoration: Principles and Procedures
    160. Dental Implants: Introduction to Dental Implant
    161. Dental Implant System Basic Information | Straumann
    162. Definitions of Implant Dental Prostheses
    163. Gum Disease and Heart Disease.
    164. Gum Disease
    165. Periodontal (Gum) Disease: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments
    166. Diabetes, Gum Disease, & Other Dental Problems.
    167. Oral Health & Risk for CV Disease.
    168. Gum Disease and Connection to Heart Disease | Harvard
    169. Tooth Decay and Gum Disease.
    170. Dental Implants
    171. Inlay/Onlay
    172. Inlays & Onlays Clinical Experiences and Literature Review
    173. Indirect Fillings: Inlay/Onlay
    174. Variety of Implant-Supported Components
    175. Crown or Not to Crown Root Canal Treated Teeth
    176. Esthetic Evaluation of Implant-Supported Single Crowns ...
    177. Crowns, Fixed Bridges and Dental Implants
    178. A 5-Year Multicenter Study on Implant-Supported Single Crown Restorations
    179. Single-Tooth Replacement: Bridge vs. Implant-Supported Restoration
    180. Clinical Outcome of Double Crown-Retained Implant Overdentures with Zirconia Primary Crowns
    181. Resin Composite Repair for Implant-Supported Crowns
    182. Comparison of Three Different Types of Implant-Supported Fixed Dental Prostheses
    183. Dental Images
    184. Is Charcoal Toothpaste Safe? Dentists Explain the Risks
    185. Safest Ways to Whiten Teeth
    186. The Pros and Cons of Deep Cleaning Teeth
    187. Waterpik Pros and Cons
    188. Denture Care: Fake Teeth, Dental Implants, Denture Cleaning
    189. New York State Dental Policy and Procedure Manual
    190. 20 Rare Eye Conditions That Ophthalmologists Treat
    ▷ Health: History, Guides & Tips
    1. Famous Physicians in History
    2. A Brief History of the Antibiotic Era: Lessons Learned and Challenges for the Future
    3. History of Cancer
    4. The History of Cancer - First Cancer Diagnosis
    5. History of Breast Cancer: Timeline
    6. The Complete History of Breast Cancer Treatment
    7. History of Refractive Surgery
    8. History of Dental Treatments.
    9. History of Dental Implants.
    10. The History of Dental Implants.
    11. The History of Dental Advances
    12. A Brief Historical Perspective on Dental Implants
    13. History of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
    14. History of AIDS
    15. The History of HIV and AIDS in the United States
    16. History of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in Korea
    17. AIDS: From Social History to Social Policy
    18. The History of Cancer Treatment
    19. Guide to a Healthy Heart
    20. Heart Devices 101: Guide to the Tools That Keep You Ticking.
    21. Guide to Lowering Cholesterol with Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes
    22. Guide to Living Well With Heart Disease
    23. Life After Stroke Guide
    24. Guidelines for Management of Stroke
    25. Guidelines for the Early Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients
    26. Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke
    27. Reading the New Blood Pressure Guidelines.
    28. Guideline for High Blood Pressure in Adults. (2017)
    29. ESC/ESH Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension (2018)
    30. Guide to Lowering Blood Pressure
    31. Gestational Diabetes Guideline
    32. Guideline: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    33. Blood Sugar Guidelines for Gestational Diabetes Effect of Blood Sugar Levels on Migraines (2021)
    34. Migraine and Tension Headache Guideline
    35. Guideline - Management of Migraine and Cluster Headache
    36. The Mental Impact of Alopecia – Emotional Support Guide.
    37. Acid Reflux / GERD – The Ultimate Guide
    38. HIV Infection and AIDS Reporting Guidelines
    39. Guidelines for HIV/AIDS Diagnosis and Treatment
    40. Treatment Guidelines for Gonococcal Infection | CDC
    41. Guide to the Symptoms, Causes & Types of Arthritis
    42. Obstructive Sleep Apnea: The Definitive Guide (2019).
    43. Find Best Doctors, Doctor Advice & Condition Guides.
    44. Medical Terminology Guide
    45. The Beginner's Guide to Medical Terminology
    46. A Complete Guide to Common Health Concerns for Older Adults
    47. After Cancer Diagnosis: A Guide for Patients and Families
    48. A Visual Guide to Prostate Cancer.
    49. Guidelines on Prostate Cancer
    50. Lung Cancer Guide.
    51. A Patient's Guide to Liver Cancer.
    52. Liver Cancer - Patient’s Guide.
    53. Guidelines for Colonoscopy Surveillance After Screening and Polypectomy
    54. The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Colon Cancer
    55. Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines for Women
    56. New Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines Explained.
    57. Guide for Breast Cancer Symptoms and Treatments
    58. Eye Disorders Guideline | ACOEM
    59. Guidelines for Glaucoma Eye Care | ICO
    60. The Complete Guide to Cataract Surgery
    61. Cataract Surgery - A Step by Step Guide to Phacoemulsification
    62. Guide to Cataract Surgery
    63. Lasik Guidelines for Patients
    64. Clinical Guidelines Primary Ear Disease and Hearing Care in Fiji
    65. Meniere’s Disease: A Patient-Centered Guide to Decision Making
    66. Implants – Dental Coverage Guideline | UHC
    67. Types of Dental Crowns and Cost - A Complete Guide (2021)
    68. Introduction to Implant Dentistry: A Student Guide.
    69. Dental Implant Guide.
    70. Guide to Implant-Supported Crowns
    71. Zika Virus Birth Defects May be Tip of the Iceberg.
    72. Do’s and Don’ts After Dental Filling
    73. 7 Tips to Reduce Your Risk of Cancer
    74. 7 of the Most Outrageous Medical Treatments in History.
    75. 7 Dentist-Approved Tips to Safely Whiten Teeth
    76. 11 Tips for Coping Cancer Diagnosis
    77. 17 Proven Tips to Sleep Better at Night.
    78. 57 Must-Know Caregivers Tips, Stats and Facts (2020)
    79. 101 Tips for Tip-Top Health.
    ▷ Health: How, Who, What, When & Why
    1. How to Prevent Ebola (video)
    2. How to Prevent Cancer
    3. How to Prevent Cancer or Find It Early
    4. How to Prevent Heart Disease
    5. How to Prevent High Blood Pressure
    6. How to Protect Against Monkeypox Virus
    7. How to Protect Yourself from Monkeypox and What to Watch Out for
    8. How to Reduce Cancer Risks and Dealt with It.
    9. How to Boost Your 'Good' (HDL) Cholesterol?
    10. How to Do Brain Surgery.
    11. How to Know if Allergies Are Triggering Your Asthma.
    12. How to Treat a Diabetic Foot Ulcer
    13. How to Buy a Daughter.
    14. How to Fight Insurance Coverage Denials.
    15. How to Get Low Cost Dental Implants.
    16. How to Deal With Asthma and Fall Allergies
    17. How to Know If You Have Seasonal Allergies
    18. How to Know the Difference between a Common Cold and Allergies
    19. How to Tell It's a Stroke or a Heart Attack.
    20. How to Tell You Have Asthma.
    21. How to Tell If a Cough Is from a Cold, Allergies or Asthma.
    22. How to Differentiate Chlamydia and Gonorrhea
    23. How to Lower Blood Pressure (video)
    24. How to Manage Stress
    25. How to Remove Stains from Teeth
    26. How to Clean Dental Implants Properly
    27. How to Reverse Your Cataracts Naturally
    28. How to Treat 10 Top Vision Problems
    29. How to Get Relief from a Back Muscle Spasm
    30. How to Dispose of Medical Waste Safely and Properly?
    31. How to Dispose of Medicines Properly
    32. How to Dispose of Unused Medications, Including Antibiotics
    33. How to Whiten Your Teeth
    34. How to Safely Manage Medical Waste
    35. How Can I Tell if It’s Asthma or Allergies?.
    36. How Can You Tell if You Have Asthma?
    37. How Do I Know If I Have Asthma?
    38. How Do You Get Asthma?
    39. How Do You Get Rid of Indoor Allergens?
    40. How Do You Know If You Have a Cracked Tooth?.
    41. How Do You Test for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea?
    42. How Do I Clean Dentures?
    43. How Does Brain Store Memories? (video)
    44. How Does Cancer Grow and Spread?
    45. How Does Stress Lead to Heart Attacks and Stroke?
    46. How Is Sleep Apnea Treated?
    47. How Is Breast Cancer Treated?.
    48. How Is Chemotherapy Used to Treat Cancer?
    49. How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke
    50. How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to a Heart Attack
    51. How Blood Pressure Affects Heart Disease Risk
    52. How Blood Pressure Affects the Heart
    53. How Hypertension, Heart Disease, and Stroke Are Related
    54. How Long Does a Root Canal Take?.
    55. How Much Do Dental Implants Cost?
    56. How Sleep Deprivation Affects Your Heart
    57. How Lack of Sleep Affects the Brain.
    58. How Brain Works (video)
    59. How Brain Invents Mind (video)
    60. How Your Brain Changes After Baby.
    61. How Cells Adapt to Help Repair Damage.
    62. How Cancer Is Treated.
    63. How Cancer Was First Discovered and Treated
    64. How Pancreatic Cancer Is Staged and Graded.
    65. How AIDS Virus Traveled to the United States
    66. How Close Are We to Curing Cancer?
    67. How Bad Teeth Can Lead to a Bad Heart.
    68. How Often Should I Get My Teeth Cleaned?
    69. How We Treat Ovarian Cancer.
    70. How Cancer Recharges Its Batteries.
    71. How People Can Get Lung Cancer Even If They Don't Smoke.
    72. How Oral Health and Heart Disease Are Connected.
    73. How Peptic Ulcers Are Treated.
    74. How Much Does It Cost to Have a Baby? - Pregnancy Calculator.
    75. How the Heart Works.
    76. How Your Memory Works (video)
    77. How Kidney Stones Form (video)
    78. How Teeth Change With Age
    79. How the Horrific 1918 Flu Spread Across America
    80. How Women Become Surrogates.
    81. How Soon Can You Find Out the Sex of Your Baby?.
    82. How Genetics Determine Your Baby's Gender (Boy or Girl)
    83. How a Mental Health Diagnosis Can Be Empowering When Feeling Blue
    84. Who Should Take Statins? A Vicious Debate Over Cholesterol Drugs.
    85. Who Should Be Screened for Lung Cancer?
    86. Who Should Get Pricey Hepatitis C Drugs?
    87. Who Do I Contact Social Security or Medicare?
    88. What to Expect with Breast Cancer.
    89. What to Expect with Lung Cancer.
    90. What to Expect with Colorectal Cancer.
    91. What to Expect with Prostate Cancer.
    92. What to Expect with Melanoma Cancer.
    93. What to Expect as You Age | Mayo Clinic
    94. What to Know About Sessile Polyps
    95. What to Know About Cancer and Leukemia
    96. What to Do If You Test Positive for COVID-19
    97. What to Do Next After a Cancer Diagnosis
    98. What Is Internal Medicine?
    99. What Is Family Medicine?
    100. What Is Dermatology?
    101. What Is Your Back Muscle Spasm Telling You?
    102. What Is Sleep Apnea?
    103. What Is Sleep Medicine?
    104. What Is Allergy and Immunology?
    105. What Is Endocrinology?
    106. What Is Gestational Diabetes
    107. What Is a Peptic Ulcer and How to Treat It?
    108. What Is a Peptic Ulcer?
    109. What Is the Optimal Duration of PPI Therapy for Healing an Ulcer
    110. What Is High Blood Pressure?
    111. What Is a Heart Attack?
    112. What Is a Heart Attack? (Causes, Symptoms & Treatment)
    113. What Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest?
    114. What Is the Difference Between Stroke and Heart Attack?
    115. What Is the Difference Between a Heart Attack and Stroke?
    116. What Is the Link Between a Heart Attack and Blood Pressure
    117. What Is the Link Between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Heart Failure?
    118. What Is the Difference Between HIV & AIDS?
    119. What Is the Difference Between HIV and AIDS? | Healthline
    120. What Is the Difference Between Chlamydia and Gonorrhea | Healthline
    121. What Is the Difference Between Chlamydia and Gonorrhea
    122. What Is the Difference Between Dental Onlays and Dental Crowns
    123. What Is the Difference Between Filling, Inlay, Onlay and Crown
    124. What Is This White Spot on Eyeballs?.
    125. What Is the Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes?
    126. What Is Type 2 Diabetes?
    127. What Is Diabetes?
    128. What Is Diabetes? | CDC
    129. What Is Cancer? |
    130. What Is Cancer?
    131. What Is Cancer? (video)
    132. What Is Kidney Cancer?
    133. What Is Breast Cancer?
    134. What Is Thyroid Cancer?.
    135. What Is Pancreatic Cancer?
    136. What Is Liver Cancer?
    137. What Is Brain Cancer? (video)
    138. What Is Flu? (video)
    139. What Is Tumor? (video)
    140. What Is a Virus? (video)
    141. What Is Leukemia? (video)
    142. What Is Monkeypox and How Worried Should We Be?
    143. What Is Monkeypox and How Can It Be Prevented?
    144. What Is Malignant Mesothelioma Cancer?
    145. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?
    146. What Is Immunotherapy?
    147. What Is Radiotherapy?
    148. What Is Leptobrochure?
    149. What Is Gastroparesis? The Mysterious Disease Explained.
    150. When Is It Time for Cataract Surgery?.
    151. What Is in a Disease Name: Zika, Ebola, and Mad Cow
    152. What Is Happening Inside Lung Cancer Patient's Body?
    153. What Is a Patient to Do When Hospital Ratings Disagree?.
    154. What Is the Connection Between Gum Disease and Heart Disease?.
    155. What Is Root Canal?.
    156. What Is Dental Plaque, Causes, How to Remove, Prevent ...
    157. What Is Gum Disease?
    158. What Is Glaucoma?
    159. What Is Cataract?
    160. What Is a Cataract Surgery? (video)
    161. What Is the Best Way to Store Dentures?
    162. What Is a Root Canal?
    163. What Is a Root Canal? - Pain, Procedure, & Cost
    164. What Is Ménière's Disease?
    165. What Is Binocular Diplopia - Causes, Diagnosis, and More
    166. What Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder? (video)
    167. What Is Causing Abdominal Pain and Diarrhea?
    168. What Is Autism Spectrum Disorder?
    169. What Are the Symptoms of Autism?
    170. What Are the Causes of Cancer?.
    171. What Are the Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer?
    172. What Are the Symptoms and Signs of Lung Cancer?.
    173. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Heart Disease?
    174. What Are Ischemic Heart Disease and Stroke?
    175. What Are the Most Effective Hemorrhoid Treatments?
    176. What Are Basal and Squamous Cell Skin?
    177. What Are the Common Elderly Health Issues?
    178. What Are Cataracts?
    179. What Causes Cancer?
    180. What Causes Brain Tumors?.
    181. What Causes Stomach Ulcers?.
    182. What Causes Mouth Ulcers and How to Treat Them.
    183. What Causes Joint Damage
    184. What Causes a Heart Attack? (video)
    185. What Causes High Blood Pressure? (video)
    186. What Can I Do to Prevent Glaucoma?
    187. What Can You Do About Sensitive Teeth?
    188. What You Can Do to Reduce Your Risk of Cancer
    189. What You Can Do to Prevent Cancer
    190. What You Can Do to Prevent Cancer and Why It Works
    191. What You Need to Know About Blindness
    192. What You Need to Know About National Grants for Vision Care
    193. What You Need to Know About High Blood Cholesterol
    194. What You Need to Know About Testing for Cervical Cancer.
    195. What You Need to Know About Cerebral Palsy.
    196. What You Need to Know About Cancer
    197. What You Need to Know About Kidney Cancer.
    198. What You Need to Know About Allergies, Asthma, Flu and COVID-19.
    199. What You Need to Know About the COVID-19 Pandemic (4/2021)
    200. What You Need to Know About the Pfizer BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine
    201. What You Need to Know About the Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine
    202. What You Need to Know About the Johnson & Johnson's Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine
    203. What You Need to Know About the Oxford Astrazeneca COVID-19 Vaccine
    204. What You Need to Know About the Sinovac COVID-19 Vaccine
    205. What You Need to Know About the Sinopharm COVID-19 Vaccine
    206. What You Need to Know About Polyps
    207. What Do We Know and What Do We Need to Know About Polyp Size Measurement at CT Colonography?
    208. What Will I Experience During Cataract Surgery?.
    209. What You Should Know About Glaucoma
    210. What You Should Know About Cataract
    211. What Should I Expect Before, During, and After Surgery? | FDA
    212. What Women Should Know About Having Baby Past 35.
    213. What Your Cholesterol Number Really Says.
    214. What We Know About Autism (video)
    215. What Zika Infection Looks Like.
    216. What the Numbers Mean in Cancer Risk
    217. What Happens to Blood Pressure During a Heart Attack?.
    218. What Happens if a Polyp Is Cancerous?
    219. What Happens to Your Teeth as You Age?
    220. What Happens During a Teeth Cleaning?
    221. What Would Happen If I Couldn't Afford Health Care When I'm Pregnant?.
    222. What Tests Can Detect Prostate Cancer Early?.
    223. When Seasonal Allergy Symptoms Aren't Allergies.
    224. When Stomach Pain Is and Is Not an Emergency.
    225. When Is Risk Highest for Women with Breast Cancer Gene Mutations?.
    226. When a Cough Isn't "Just a Cough".
    227. When Men Develop Prostate Cancer.
    228. Which Colon Polyps Are Riskiest for You?.
    229. Who Is at Risk for Prostate Cancer?
    230. Why Do We Have Blood Types?
    231. Why Do I Need X-Rays?
    232. Why Cancer Immunotherapy?
    233. Why Are Cardiac Tumors So Rare?.
    234. Why Are Black Men Negatively Affected by Prostate Cancer More Than White Men?
    235. Why Are My Allergies Worse Indoors?
    236. Why Is Pharmaceutical Waste a Problem?
    237. Why Is It Too Hard to Cure Cancer? (video)
    238. Why Is Cancer Treatment So Expensive?.
    239. Why Is Oral Health Important for Men?
    240. Why Is Healthcare So Expensive in the United States?
    241. Why U.S. Health Care Is So Expensive
    242. Why Many Men Have a Harder Time Seeking Treatment for Mental Illness.
    243. Why You Probably Don't Need to Worry About Getting Cancer
    244. Why the Monkeypox Outbreak Is Mostly Affecting Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    10. 2012: Sir JOHN B. GURDON and SHINYA YAMANAKA
    12. 2010: ROBERT G. EDWARDS
    16. 2006: ANDREW Z. FIRE and CRAIG C. MELLO
    18. 2004: RICHARD AXEL and LINDA B BUCK
    23. 1999: GÜNTER BLOBEL
    25. 1997: STANLEY B. PRUSINER
    30. 1992: EDMOND H. FISCHER and EDWIN G. KREBS
    31. 1991: ERWIN NEHER and BERT SAKMANN
    35. 1987: SUSUMU TONEGAWA
    51. 1971: EARL W. JR. SUTHERLAND
    61. 1961: GEORG VON BÉKÉSY
    65. 1957: DANIEL BOVET
    71. 1951: MAX THEILER
    80. 1942: NO GIVEN PRIZE
    81. 1941: NO GIVEN PRIZE
    82. 1940: NO GIVEN PRIZE
    83. 1939: GERHARD DOMAGK
    87. 1935: HANS SPEMANN
    89. 1933: THOMAS HUNT MORGAN
    92. 1930: KARL LANDSTEINER
    97. 1925: NO GIVEN PRIZE
    98. 1924: WILLEM EINTHOVEN
    101. 1921: NO GIVEN PRIZE
    103. 1919: JULES BORDET
    104. 1918: NO GIVEN PRIZE
    105. 1917: NO GIVEN PRIZE
    106. 1916: NO GIVEN PRIZE
    107. 1915: NO GIVEN PRIZE
    108. 1914: ROBERT BÁRÁNY
    110. 1912: ALEXIS CARREL
    111. 1911: ALLVAR GULLSTRAND
    112. 1910: ALBRECHT KOSSEL
    113. 1909: EMIL THEODOR KOCHER
    117. 1905: ROBERT KOCH
    119. 1903: NIELS RYBERG FINSEN
    120. 1902: Sir RONALD ROSS

    Facts on the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

    How Many Hours People Need To Sleep?

    Age Sleep Time (hours) Age Sleep Time (hours)
    1-15 days 16-22 19-30 years 8
    6-23 months 13 31-45 years 7.5
    3-9 years 11 45-50 years 6
    10-13 years 10 50+ years 5.5
    14-18 years 9    

    Life Expectancy at Birth (Years)
    (Countries & Territories)
    (Source: CIA - The World Factbook)

    Leading Causes of Death Globally

    Global Percentages of Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) Attributed to 19 Leading Risk Factors by Income Group.

    Healthcare Documentation
    1. Heart Health Glossary
    2. Approach to the Older Patient with Cancer
    3. Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Patients with Ovarian Cancer: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
    4. Systematic Review of the Relation between Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer in Europe and North America
    5. The Framingham Heart Study and the Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Historical Perspective
    6. Ongoing Data from the Breast Cancer Prevention Trials: Opportunity for Breast Cancer Risk Reduction
    7. Age-Specific Gene Expression Signatures for Breast Tumors and Cross-Species Conserved Potential Cancer Progression Markers in Young Women
    8. Gestational Diabetes as a Risk Factor for Pancreatic Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study
    9. Report on Risks and Benefits to Health of Non-Device Software Functions - November 2020
    10. FDA and Clinical Drug Trials: A Short History
    11. Good Review Practice: Clinical Review of Investigational New Drug Applications
    12. Medical Management Treatment Manual
    13. NIH Turning Discovery into Health
    14. HTA 101 - Introduction to Health Technology Assessment

    Professionally Active Medical Doctors Directory

    Osteopathic Physicians (DOs) vs. Medical Doctors (MDs)
    Sources: American Osteopathic Association & American Medical Association

    Graduates in 2000
    Graduates in 2011
    Growth Rate of Graduates
    Number of Schools in 2000
    Number of Schools in 2013
    Growth Rate of Schools
    Doctors Delivering Primary Care
    Students' Average MCAT Score (2011-2012)
    Students' Average GPA (2011-2012)
    49,200 (60%)
    245,367 (36%)

    Pregnancy & Baby Care
    Baby's Health
    Charting to Conception
    Baby's Sex Decision
    Gender Selection
    Want a Boy? Want a Girl?
    Ovulation Symptoms

    Ovulation Calculator
    Pregnancy Calculator
    Pregnancy Due Date Calculator
    Pregnancy Symptoms
    Try Getting Pregnancy?
    Giving Birth
    Labor & Delivery
    Women's Healthcare Topics
    Baby Teething
    Baby Care
    Baby World
    Child Development
    Child Birth
    Baby Heart Rate & Gender
    Newborn Care
    Pregnancy Calendar
    Getting Pregnant
    Pregnancy & Baby Care
    Sure Baby
    Today's Parent
    Baby Care Basics
    Teenage Parents

    Blood Test Results - Normal Range

    Blood Group Combination
    Mother Child Father (Possible) Father (Impossible)
    A O O, A, or B AB
    A A Any Group  
    A B B or AB O or A
    A AB B or AB O or A
    AB AB A, B, or AB O
    B O O, A, or B AB
    B B Any Group  
    B A A or AB O or B
    B AB A or AB O or B
    O O O, A, or B AB
    O A A or AB O or B
    O B B or AB O or A

    Blood Type & Population

    Contraception Methods - Birth Control

    What If Having a Baby When You're Over 40?
    1. Higher Risk of Miscarriage
  • At age 20: 1 in 10 women
  • At age 35: 1 in 5 women
  • At age 40: 1 in 3 women
  • At age 45: 1 in 2 women

  • Non-cancerous tumors called fibroids and endometriosis, the abnormal growth of the lining of a woman's uterus, can lead to a miscarriage.

    2. Higher Risk of any Chromosomal Disorder
  • At age 20: 1 in 526 births
  • At age 30: 1 in 385 births
  • At age 40: 1 in 66 births
  • At age 45: 1 in 21 births

  • Women are born with all the eggs they'll ever have. As a woman ages, her eggs also age. All genetic abnormalities increase as the egg gets older. The eggs are stored in the ovaries, and there is a potential for change over time.

    3. Higher Risk of Down Syndrome
  • At age 25: 1 in 1,250 births
  • At age 30: 1 in 1,000 births
  • At age 35: 1 in 400 births
  • At age 40: 1 in 100 births
  • At age 45: 1 in 30 births
  • At age 50: 1 in 10 births

  • As a woman ages, the risk of delivering a baby with Down syndrome increases. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder often caused by an error in cell division. There are multiple types of Down syndrome, and the exact cause is not known.

    4. Higher Risk of Gestational Diabetes
  • At age 20: 22 in 1,000 women
  • At age 25: 36 in 1,000 women
  • At age 30: 51 in 1,000 women
  • At age 35: 67 in 1,000 women
  • At age 40: 84 in 1,000 women

  • Pregnancy stresses the body, requiring the pancreas to produce more insulin. In older women, having a baby can trigger diabetes during pregnancy. As we get older our pancreas is less able to respond to those stressors.

    5. Higher Risk of Pre-eclampsia
  • At age 20: 38 in 1,000 women
  • At age 25: 37 in 1,000 women
  • At age 30: 36 in 1,000 women
  • At age 35: 39 in 1,000 women
  • At age 40: 48 in 1,000 women

  • Pre-eclampsia is a sometimes deadly condition of pregnancy marked by high blood pressure and protein in the urine. Often when a mother has pre-eclampsia, the baby needs to be delivered prematurely to save the lives of mother and baby. Women as they get into their 40s may also have some hypertension already, and if they do, they have a higher risk of that being exacerbated during pregnancy.

    Morning Fasting Blood Glucose for Diabetics

    Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to control blood sugar (Glucose). Diabetes can be caused by too little insulin, resistance to insulin, or both. Glucose is vital to the human body because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and tissues. Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. When there is too much glucose in blood, it is classified as type 1 diabetes. When blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as type 1 diabetes, it is called type 2 diabetes. After many years, diabetes can cause many serious problems, such as eye problems (which may lead to blind), foot/leg problems (which may be removed), heart attack, stroke, pain, tingling, loss of feeling, nerve damage, which causes digesting food problems, weakness, erection issues, and kidney damage.

  • From 70 to 99 mg/dL, or 3.9 to 5.5. mmol/L
  • From 100 to 125 mg/dL, or 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L
  • 126 mg/dL or higher, or 7.0 or higher
    Normal - No diabetes

    Understanding of Hypertension
  • Hypertension, or high blood pressure (HBP), has no noticeable symptoms. Having HBP and coronary artery disease (CAD) puts you at a greater risk of a heart attack or stroke. You can have HBP for years without knowing it because HBP itself usually has no symptoms. If your blood pressure rises and stays high over time, it can damage your heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and other parts of your body. The numbers in a blood pressure reading include Systolic and Diastolic. Systolic (the top number) is the maximum pressure in the arteries when the heart is contracting or squeezing. Diastolic (the bottom number) represents the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest. The recommended blood pressure goal is below 140/90 mmHg (millimeters of mercury). If your blood pressure is above that level, you may have HBP. The most common of medications to treat HBP in people who have CAD is Beta-blockers, which slow the heart rate, reduce the heart's output of blood, and decrease the force of the heart beat. There are many different medicines that can be used to treat high blood pressure; these include Alpha blockers, Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, Angiotensin receptor blockers, Beta-blockers, Calcium channel blockers, Central alpha agonists, Diuretics, Renin inhibitors, including aliskiren (Tekturna), and Vasodilators. There are about 100 prescribed medications for high blood pressure.

  • Top 5 Myths about High Blood Pressure.

  • Less than 120/80
  • 120/80 to 139/89
  • 140/90 to 159/99
  • 160/100 and higher
    Stage 1 - Hypertension
    Stage 2 - Hypertension

    New High Blood Pressure Guidelines
    Blood Pressure Category SYSTOLIC nm Hg
    (upper number)
      DISSTOLIC nm Hg
    (upper number)
    Normal less than 120 and less than 80
    Evaluated 120-129 and less than 80
    Hypertension Stage 1 130-139 or 80-89
    Hypertension Stage 2 140 or Higher or 90 or Higher
    Hypertensive Crisis
    (Consult your doctor immediately)
    Higher than 180 and/or Higher than 120

    Heart & Arteries Testing

    A. Heart Disease, Stroke & Aneurysm Tests

    1. Stroke/Carotid Artery Ultrasound Test - Carotid ultrasound shows whether a waxy substance called plaque (plak) has built up in your carotid arteries. The buildup of plaque in the carotid arteries is called carotid artery disease. The ultrasound test identifies plaque buildup in the carotid arteries, which is a leading cause of stroke.

    2. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Ultrasound - An aneurysm (AN-u-rism) is a balloon-like bulge in an artery. Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to your body. The ultrasound  test checks for aneurysms in the abdomen. The danger lies in the risk of the aneurysm bursting or rupturing.

    3. Electrocardiogram (EKG) - An electrocardiogram (e-lek-tro-KAR-de-o-gram), also called an EKG or ECG, is a simple, painless test that records the heart's electrical activity, which may predict pending heart attack.

    4. Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.) Test - Peripheral arterial disease (P.A.D.) is a disease in which plaque (plak) builds up in the arteries that carry blood to your head, organs, and limbs. Leg cramps due to poor circulation could indicate something more serious. This screening measures the extremities for peripheral arterial disease.

    5. Harding of the Arteries (ASI) Test - The Arterial Stiffness Index (ASI) measures the flexibility or hardening of the arteries. The stiffer the arteries, the harder the heart has to work and the more long-term damage it will sustain.

    B. Ultrasound of the Heart

    Echocardiogram Ultrasound Test - Echocardiography (EK-o-kar-de-OG-rah-fee), or echo, is a painless test that uses sound waves to create moving pictures of your heart. The pictures show the size and shape of your heart. They also show how well your heart's chambers and valves are working.. This ultrasound test is done to evaluate the valves and chambers of the heart in a noninvasive way and may detect enlargement of the heart, valve abnormalities, blood clots, tumors and more.

    C. Major Heart Tests

    1. Physical Stress Test - Stress test provides information about how your heart works during physical stress. It is used to determine the amount of stress that your heart can manage before developing either an abnormal rhythm or evidence of ischemia (not enough blood flow to the heart muscle).

    2. Nuclear Stress Test (also called as "Cardiolyte" or "Thallium" or "Adenosine") - Nuclear stress test measures blood flow to your heart muscle both at rest and during stress on the heart. It's performed similarly to a routine exercise stress test, but provides images that can show areas of low blood flow through the heart and areas of damaged heart muscle

    Overused Tests & Procedures

    • Repeat colonoscopies within 10 years of a first test
    • Early imaging for most back pain
    • Brain scans for patients who fainted but didn't have seizures
    • Antibiotics for mild- to-moderate sinusitis unless symptoms last for seven or more days or worsen
    • Stress cardiac imaging or advanced non-invasive imaging in the initial evaluation of patients without cardiac symptoms unless high-risk markers are present
    • PAP smears on women younger than 21 or who have had a hysterectomy for a non-cancer disease
    • Advanced imaging or bone scans in patients with early-stage breast or low-grade prostate cancer
    • Bone scan screening for osteoporosis in women younger than 65 or men younger than 70 with no risk factors
    • Routine cancer screening on dialysis patients with limited life expectancies
    • Chemotherapy for sickest cancer patients

    Knowledge & Prevention

    1. Alzheimer's Disease
    2. Alcohol Abuse
    3. Alcoholic Liver Disease
    4. Allergies
    5. Anthrax
    6. Angina & Chest Pain
    7. Anxiety
    8. Arthritis
    9. Asthma
    10. Autism
    11. Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)
    12. Back Pain
    13. Bladder Diseases
    14. Blood Diseases
    15. BMI
    16. Bone Tumor
    17. Brain Disease
    18. Brain Tumor
    19. Cancer
    20. Cardiovascular
    21. Chest Pain
    22. Cholera
    23. Cholesterol
    24. Cholesterol: Good vs Bad
    25. Cold
    26. Coma
    27. Contraceptive Guide
    28. Cough
    29. Creatinine Kinase
    30. Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK)
    31. Depression
    32. Diarrhea
    33. Diabetes
    34. Eye Diseases
    35. Flu
    36. Hand Carpal Tunnel Release/Surgery
    37. Headache
    38. Heart Attack
    39. Heartburn
    40. Heart Disease
    41. Herpes
    42. High Blood Pressure
    43. HIV/AIDS
    44. HIV/AIDS Key Facts
    45. Kidney
    46. Knee Pain
    47. Liver Disease
    48. Fatty Liver Disease
    49. Lung Disease
    50. Malaria
    51. Medical Encyclopedia
    52. Medicine Dictionary
    53. Mental Illness
    54. Mesothelioma
    55. Obesity
    56. Parkinson Disease
    57. Personality
    58. Poisonous Snakes
    59. Schizophrenia
    60. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
    61. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
    62. Smallpox
    63. Stroke
    64. Sleep Disorder
    65. Stress
    66. Substance
    67. Suicide
    68. Toothache
    69. Transplant
    70. Tuberculosis
    71. Tumor
    72. Vision
    73. Vitamins
    74. Zika

    Knowledge of Drugs

    1. How to Dispose of Unused Medicines
    2. Five Tips for New Moms
    3. Biosimilars: More Treatment Options Are on the Way
    4. Pancreatic Cancer: Targeted Treatments Hold Promise
    5. Need Relief From Overactive Bladder Symptoms?
    6. Get Set for a Healthy Winter Season 
    7. Pregnant? Breastfeeding? Better Drug Information Is Coming
    8. Registries Help Inform Medication Use in Pregnancy
    9. Want to Be More Health Savvy?
    10. Have a Baby or Young Child With a Cold? Most Don't Need Medicines
    11. Your Guide to Reporting Problems to FDA
    12. FDA Pharmacists Help Consumers Use Medicines Safely
    13. Generic Drugs Undergo Rigorous FDA Scrutiny
    14. Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your Health
    15. FDA Builds Closer Ties with Mexico
    16. Research Flash: FDA Scientists Study Pediatric Brain Function
    17. FDA Helps Tackle Sickle Cell Disease
    18. Caution: Some Over-the-Counter Medicines May Affect Your Driving
    19. A Decade of Prostate Cancer Progress
    20. Treating Migraines: More Ways to Fight the Pain
    21. FDA: Don’t Leave Childhood Depression Untreated
    22. FDA Explores New Uses for MRI Scans
    23. My Dog Has Cancer: What Do I Need to Know?
    24. Psoriasis Treatments Are Getting More Personalized
    25. WANTED: Consumers to Report Problems
    26. Personalized Medicine and Companion Diagnostics Go Hand-in-Hand
    27. Cord Blood: What You Need to Know
    28. Faster, Easier Cures for Hepatitis C
    29. Did You Know? FDA Supports Research to Reduce Health Disparities
    30. Juvenile Arthritis: New Discoveries Lead to New Treatments
    31. The Lab for These FDA Scientists Is a Computer Screen
    32. Breast Cancer—Men Get It Too
    33. Do Teething Babies Need Medicine on Their Gums? No
    34. Topical Acne Products Can Cause Dangerous Side Effects
    35. Some Bee Pollen Weight Loss Products Are a Dangerous Scam
    36. “My Medicines” ... This Brochure Can be a Lifesaver
    37. Four Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults
    38. Sometimes Drugs and the Liver Don't Mix
    39. Lupus Therapies Continue to Evolve
    40. Skin Cancer Patients Have More Treatment Options
    41. How Long Should You Take Certain Osteoporosis Drugs?
    42. Fighting Allergy Season with Medications
    43. Can an Aspirin a Day Help Prevent a Heart Attack?
    44. Medications for High Blood Pressure
    45. Beware of False or Misleading Claims for Treating Autism
    46. FDA Gives Latinas Tools to Fight Diabetes
    47. Hemophilia Treatments Have Come a Long Way
    48. FDA Broadens Its Vocabulary
    49. Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatments Aren't One-Size-Fits-All
    50. Fighting Diabetes' Deadly Impact on Minorities
    51. FDA Historians Share Lessons From Agency's Past
    52. Five Tips for a Safer Spring Break
    53. FDA Speeds Innovation in Rare Disease Therapies
    54. Improving Your Odds for Cervical Health
    55. Treating Head Lice
    56. Some Wart Removers are Flammable
    57. FDA Unit Pursues Illegal Web Pharmacies
    58. Use Certain Laxatives with Caution
    59. FDA Taking Closer Look at 'Antibacterial' Soap
    60. Phasing Out Certain Antibiotic Use in Farm Animals
    61. Pain Medicines for Pets: Know the Risks
    62. Teens and Steroids: A Dangerous Combo
    63. FDA Acts to Prevent More Drug Shortages
    64. FDA Helping to Advance Treatments Tailored to You
    65. Island Office Protects Consumers Near and Far
    66. Fentanyl Patch Can Be Deadly to Children
    67. Goal of Label Changes: Better Prescribing, Safer Use of Opioids
    68. Anesthesia: Is it Safe for Young Brains?
    69. Babies Spitting Up—Normal in Most Cases
    70. FDA Warns of Rare Acetaminophen Risk
    71. Beware of Illegally Sold Diabetes Treatments
    72. Use Sunscreen Spray? Avoid Open Flame
    73. FDA Forges Partnerships in Latin America
    74. Keeping Drug Advertising Honest and Balanced
    75. Allergy Meds Could Affect Your Driving
    76. Users of Last CFC Inhalers Must Soon Switch
    77. FDA Helps Women Get Heart Smart
    78. Stay Safe in the Summer Sun
    79. Pregnancy: A Time for Special Caution

    Knowledge of Medical Devices

    1. Colorectal Cancer: What You Should Know
    2. Don't be Misled by "Latex Free" Claims
    3. Laser Toys: Not Always Child's Play
    4. Avoid Fetal "Keepsake" Images, Heartbeat Monitors
    5. More Choices Available for Diabetes Management
    6. Your Guide to Reporting Problems to FDA
    7. Mammography: What You Need to Know
    8. FDA Builds Closer Ties with Mexico
    9. 3D Technologies Poised to Change How Doctors Diagnose Cancers
    10. Treating Migraines: More Ways to Fight the Pain
    11. FDA Explores New Uses for MRI Scans
    12. WANTED: Consumers to Report Problems
    13. Mom, Can I Get Contact Lenses, Please?
    14. Filling in Wrinkles Safely
    15. Personalized Medicine and Companion Diagnostics Go Hand-in-Hand
    16. Did You Know? FDA Supports Research to Reduce Health Disparities
    17. FDA Teams Up for Novel Campaign on Risks of Decorative Contact Lenses
    18. Blood Pressure Monitoring Kiosks Aren't for Everyone
    19. Indoor Tanning Raises Risk of Melanoma: FDA Strengthens Warnings for Sunlamp Products
    20. Always Tired? You May Have Sleep Apnea
    21. Protecting Your Vision: Facts and Fiction
    22. Beware of False or Misleading Claims for Treating Autism
    23. FDA Broadens Its Vocabulary
    24. Fighting Diabetes' Deadly Impact on Minorities
    25. FDA Historians Share Lessons From Agency's Past
    26. Five Tips for a Safer Spring Break
    27. FDA Speeds Innovation in Rare Disease Therapies
    28. Devices in Public Places Restart Hearts
    29. Improving Your Odds for Cervical Health
    30. Some Wart Removers are Flammable
    31. Check Adult Portable Bed Rails Often for Safer Use
    32. Nipple Aspirate Test is No Substitute for Mammogram
    33. Hearing Loss Signals Need for Diagnosis
    34. FDA Helping to Advance Treatments Tailored to You
    35. Decorative Contact Lenses: Is Your Vision Worth It?
    36. Island Office Protects Consumers Near and Far
    37. Keeping Up with Progress in Mobile Medical Apps
    38. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: Don't Be Misled
    39. Safety Problems With Your Child's Medical Device?
    40. FDA Forges Partnerships in Latin America
    41. Users of Last CFC Inhalers Must Soon Switch
    42. Clinical Trials Shed Light on Minority Health
    43. FDA Invention Fights Counterfeit Malaria Drugs
    44. FDA Wants YOU (to Get Involved)
    45. Making Health and Health Care Equal for All
    46. Zebrafish Make a Splash in FDA Research
    47. Putting a Patch on Migraines
    48. FDA Team Advances Women's Health
    49. 5 Things to Know About Breast Implants
    50. Report Kids' Problems With Medical Products
    51. Searching Online for 'Hemorrhoids'?
    52. Inked and Regretful: Removing Tattoos
    53. Jonca Bull: FDA Fights Health Disparities
    54. Breast Pumps: Don't Be Misled - Get the Facts
    55. Making Medical Devices Safer at Home
    56. Is Rinsing Your Sinuses Safe?
    57. FDA Continues Dialogue on 'Nano' Regulation
    58. Toothbrush Can Chip Teeth and Cause Choking
    59. FDA Targets Risks From Reused Medical Devices
    60. FDA Targets Gastric Band Weight-Loss Claims
    61. Consumer Update: FDA and Partners Working to Prevent Surgical Fires
    62. Don't Be Fooled By Health Fraud Scams
    63. Improperly Discarded 'Sharps' Can Be Dangerous
    64. How Is Diabetes Treated in Children?
    65. Oct. 20 Webinar - FDA's MedWatch System: How to Report Adverse Events
    66. Do Baby Products Prevent SIDS? FDA Says No
    67. FDA Modernizing Regulatory Science
    68. July 28 Webinar: Home Use of Medical Devices
    69. FDA Proposes Health 'App' Guidelines
    70. Silicone Gel-Filled Breast Implants: Updated Safety Information
    71. Thermogram No Substitute for Mammogram
    72. May 17 Webinar: Foreign Inspections
    73. Dry Mouth? Don't Delay Treatment
    74. Identifying Recalled Products
    75. March 15 Webinar: Tattoos and Permanent Makeup
    76. FDA Advises Women With Breast Implants
    77. 'Lucky 13' Tips for a Safe Halloween
    78. FDA 101: Health Fraud Awareness
    79. Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk
    80. FDA Cautions Against Using Unapproved IUDs
    81. Infant Overdose Risk With Liquid Vitamin D
    82. Furthers Reach of FDA Consumer Health Information
    83. Indoor Tanning: The Risks of Ultraviolet Rays
    84. Triclosan: What Consumers Should Know

    U.S. Hospitals (by States)

    | Alabama | Alaska | Arizona | Arkansas | California | Colorado | Connecticut | Delaware | District of Columbia | Florida | Georgia | Hawaii | Idaho | Illinois | Indiana | Iowa | Kansas | Kentucky | Louisiana | Maine | Maryland | Massachusetts | Michigan | Minnesota | Mississippi | Missouri | Montana | Nebraska | Nevada | New Hampshire | New Jersey | New Mexico | New York | North Carolina | North Dakota | Ohio | Oklahoma | Oregon | Pennsylvania | Rhode Island | South Carolina | South Dakota | Tennessee | Texas | Utah | Vermont | Virginia | Washington | West Virginia | Wisconsin | Wyoming | Guam | Puerto Rico | Virgin-Islands |

    Professional Associations & Societies
    1. Academy Health
    2. Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy
    3. Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care
    4. Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education
    5. Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education
    6. Advanced Medical Technology Association
    7. Alliance of Claims Assistance Professionals
    8. Alliance of Community Health Plans
    9. Alliance for Health Reform
    10. Alliance of Independent Academic Medical Centers
    11. America's Blood Centers
    12. American Academy of Medical Administrators
    13. American Academy of Neurology
    14. American Academy of Orthaepedic Surgeons
    15. American Academy of Pediatrics
    16. American Academy of Peridontology
    17. American Academy of Physician Assistants
    18. American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
    19. American Academy of Procedural Coders
    20. American Accreditation HealthCare Commission
    21. American Ambulance Association
    22. American Ass'n for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities
    23. American Association for Homecare
    24. American Association of Ambulatory Surgery Centers
    25. American Association of Association Executives
    26. American Association of Blood Banks
    27. American Association of Colleges of Nursing
    28. American Association of Eye and Ear Hospitals
    29. American Association of Community Psychiatrists
    30. American Association of Healthcare Administrative Management
    31. American Association of Healthcare Consultants
    32. American Association of Hospital Dentists
    33. American Association of Integrated Healthcare Delivery Systems
    34. American Association of Medical Assistants
    35. American Medical Billing Association
    36. American Association of Medical Review Officers
    37. American Academy of Nurse Practitioners
    38. American Association of Operating Room Nurses
    39. American Association of Physicists in Medicine
    40. American Association of Poison Control Centers
    41. American Association of Preferred Provider Organizations
    42. American Association of Retired Persons
    43. American Association of Tissue Banks
    44. American Bar Association
    45. American Board of Medical Specialties
    46. American College of Cardiology
    47. American College of Health Care Administrators
    48. American College of Healthcare Architects
    49. American College of Healthcare Executives
    50. American College of Healthcare Information Administrators
    51. American College of Legal Medicine
    52. American College of Medical Quality
    53. American College of Physician Executives
    54. American College of Surgeons/Commission on Cancer
    55. American Dental Association
    56. American Health Care Association
    57. American Healthcare Radiology Administrators
    58. American Health Information Management Association
    59. American Health Planning Association
    60. American Health Quality Association
    61. American Healthcare Radiology Administrators
    62. American Heart Association
    63. American Lung Association
    64. American Managed Behavioral Healthcare Association
    65. American Medical Association
    66. American Medical Directors Association
    67. American Medical Group Association
    68. American Medical Informatics Association
    69. American Medical Rehabilitation Providers Association
    70. American Medical Resources Foundation
    71. American Medical Women's Association
    72. American Nurses Association
    73. American Occupational Therapy Association
    74. American Organization of Nurse Executives
    75. American Osteopathic Association
    76. American Physical Therapy Association
    77. American Podiatric Medical Association
    78. American Psychiatric Association
    79. American Psychiatric Nurses Association
    80. American Psychological Association
    81. American Public Health Association
    82. American School Health Association
    83. American Society for Geriatric Psychiatry
    84. American Society for Healthcare Environmental Services
    85. American Society for Healthcare Food Service
    86. American Society for Quality
    87. American Society for Testing and Materials
    88. American Society of Anesthesiologists
    89. American Society of Healthcare Publication Editors
    90. American Society of Health System Pharmacists
    91. American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
    92. American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons
    93. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
    94. American Telemedicine Association
    95. American's Blood Centers
    96. Association for Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs
    97. Association for Ambulatory Behavioral Healthcare
    98. Association for Benchmarking Health Care
    99. Association for Clinicians for the Underserved
    100. Association for Electronic Health Care Transactions
    101. Association for Health Center Affiliated Health Plans
    102. Association for Healthcare Philanthropy
    103. Association for Hispanic Healthcare Executives
    104. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology
    105. Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation
    106. Association for Worksite Health Promotion
    107. Association of Academic Health Centers
    108. Association of Air Medical Services
    109. Association of American Medical Colleges
    110. Association of Behavioral Healthcare Management
    111. Association of Cancer Executives
    112. Association of Nutrition & Foodservice Professionals
    113. Association of Clinical Research Organizations
    114. Association of Freestanding Radiation Oncology Centers
    115. Association of Healthcare Internal Auditors
    116. Association of Health Care Journalists
    117. Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs
    118. Association of Medical Device Reprocessors
    119. Association of Medical Directors of Information Systems
    120. Association of Operating Room Nurses
    121. Association of Organ Procurement Organizations
    122. Association of Professional Chaplains
    123. Association of Public Health Laboratories
    124. Association of Staff Physician Recruiters
    125. Directors of Health Promotion and Public Health Education
    126. Association of State and Territorial Health Officials
    127. Association of University Programs in Health Administration
    128. Association of Vision Science Librarians
    129. Australian Healthcare & Hospitals Association
    130. Biotechnology Industry Organization
    131. Canadian College of Health Service Executives
    132. Canadian Healthcare Association
    133. Case Management Society of America
    134. Catholic Health Association of the United States
    135. Center for Studying Health System Change
    136. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
    137. Clinical Laboratory Management Association
    138. Coalition for Affordable Quality Healthcare
    139. Coalition for Affordable and Reliable Health Care
    140. Coalition for Healthcare e-Standards
    141. COLA - Commission on Office Laboratory Accreditation)
    142. College of Healthcare Information Management Executives
    143. Commission of Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools
    144. Commission on Accreditation of Ambulance Service
    145. Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities
    146. Common Good [malpractice liability reform]
    147. Consumer Driven Health Care Association
    148. Consumer Healthcare Products Association
    149. Council for Responsible Telemedicine
    150. Council of Ethical Organizations - Health Ethics Trust
    151. Council of Teaching Hospitals and Health Systems
    152. Council of Women's and Infants Specialty Hospitals
    153. Dental Group Management Association
    154. Disease Management Association of America
    155. EHR Collaborative - [electronic health record standards]
    156. Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates
    157. Electronic Healthcare Network Accreditation Commission
    158. Emergency Department Practice Management Association
    159. Emergency Nurses Association
    160. Employee Benefit Research Institute
    161. Employers' Managed Health Care Association
    162. European Healthcare Management Association
    163. Eye Bank Association of America
    164. Federated Ambulatory Surgery Association
    165. Federation of American Hospitals
    166. Federation of State MedicalBoards of the United States
    167. Forum on Privacy and Security in Healthcare
    168. Governance Institute
    169. Healthcare Billing and Management Association
    170. HealthCare Chaplaincy
    171. Health Care Compliance Association
    172. Healthcare Convention and Exhibitors Associations
    173. Healthcare Distribution Management Association
    174. Healthcare EDI Coalition [electronic data, internet]
    175. Health Care Education Association
    176. Healthcare Financial Management Association
    177. Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society
    178. Health Insurance Association of America
    179. Healthcare Leadership Council
    180. Health Care Liability Alliance
    181. Healthcare Manufacturers Marketing Council
    182. Health Care Resource Management Society
    183. Healthcare Roundtable
    184. Health Care Without Harm
    185. Health Industry Business Communications Council
    186. Health Industry Distributors Association
    187. Health Industry Group Purchasing Association
    188. Health Industry Representatives Association
    189. Health Insurance Association of America
    190. Health Level Seven
    191. Health Occupations Students of America
    192. Health Technology Center
    193. Hospice Association of America
    194. Hospital Fire Marshals' Association
    195. Hospital Home Care Association of America
    196. HSA Coalition
    197. Institute of Certified Healthcare Business Consultants
    198. Insurance Information Institute
    199. Integrated Healthcare Association
    200. International Association for Healthcare Security & Safety
    201. International Association for Medical Assistance to Travellers
    202. International Ass'n of Healthcare Central Service Materiel Mgnt
    203. International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care
    204. International Association of Privacy Professionals
    205. International Executive Housekeepers Association
    206. International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans
    207. International Health Economics Association
    208. International Interior Design Association
    209. International Red Cross
    210. Internet Healthcare Coalition
    211. IPA Association of America
    212. Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations
    213. Joint Healthcare Information Technology Alliance
    214. Leapfrog Group
    215. Medical Banking Project
    216. Medical Device Manufacturers Association
    217. Medical Fitness Association
    218. Medical Group Management Association
    219. Medical Library Association
    220. Medical Outcomes Trust
    221. Medical Records Institute
    222. Medical Transcription Industry Alliance
    223. Medicare Rights Center
    224. Mobile Healthcare Alliance
    225. National Adult Day Services Association
    226. National Alliance for Caregiving
    227. National Assembly on School-Based Health Care
    228. National Association Medical Staff Services
    229. National Association for Health Care Recruitment
    230. National Association for Healthcare Quality
    231. National Association of Health Services Executives
    232. National Association for Home Care and Hospice
    233. National Association for Medical Direction of Respiratory Care
    234. National Association for Rehabilitation Leadership
    235. National Association for Subacute / Post Acute Care
    236. National Association for Women's Health
    237. National Association of Addiction Treatment Providers
    238. National Association of Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Counselors
    239. National Association of Chain Drug Stores
    240. National Association of Childbearing Centers
    241. National Association of Children's Hospitals & Related Inst
    242. National Association of County and City Health Officials
    243. National Association of Dental Plans
    244. National Ass'n of Directors of Nursing Administration in Long Term Care
    245. National Association of Health Consultants
    246. National Association of Health Data Organizations
    247. National Association of Health Services Executives
    248. National Association of Health Underwriters
    249. National Association of Health Unit Coordinators
    250. National Association of Healthcare Access Management
    251. National Association of Healthcare Transport Management
    252. National Association of Hospital Hospitality Houses
    253. National Association of Insurance Commissioners
    254. National Association of Local Boards of Health
    255. National Association of Long Term Care Hospitals
    256. National Association of Managed Care Regulators
    257. National Association of Medical Staff Services
    258. National Association of Psychiatric Health Systems
    259. National Association of Public Hospitals
    260. National Association of Rural Health Clinics
    261. National Association of Social Workers
    262. National Association of State Medicaid Directors
    263. National Ass'n of State Mental Health Program Directors
    264. National Association of Urban Hospitals
    265. National Board of Medical Examiners
    266. National Business Coalition on Health
    267. National Center for Assisted Living
    268. National Coalition on Health Care
    269. National Commission on Correctional Health Care
    270. National Committee for Quality Assurance
    271. National Comprehensive Cancer Network
    272. National Conference of State Legislatures
    273. National Consortium of Breast Centers
    274. National Consortium of Health Science and Technology Education
    275. Nat'l Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting & Prevention
    276. National Council for Community Behavioral Healthcare
    277. National Council for Prescription Drug Programs
    278. National Council of Health Facilities Finance Authorities
    279. National Council of State Boards of Nursing
    280. National Council on Interpreting in Health Care
    281. National Council on Patient Information and Education
    282. National CPA Health Care Advisors Association
    283. National Electronic Billers Alliance
    284. National Quality Forum
    285. National Health Care Anti-Fraud Association
    286. National Health Care for the Homeless Council
    287. National Health Council
    288. National Healthcare Cost and Quality Association
    289. National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization
    290. National Institute for Health Care Management
    291. Certification Board for Sterile Processing and Distribution
    292. National League for Nursing
    293. National Medical Association
    294. National Mental Health Association
    295. National PACE Association
    296. National Rural Health Association
    297. National Spine Network
    298. National Uniform Claim Committee
    299. North American Association for Ambulatory Urgent Care
    300. North American Association of Central Cancer Registries
    301. Nurses for a Healthier Tomorrow
    302. Paraprofessional Healthcare Institute
    303. Partnership for Patient Safety
    304. Patient Safety Institute
    305. People's Medical Society
    306. Pharmaceutical Care Management Association
    307. Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers Association
    308. Pharmacy Benefit Management Institute
    309. Physician Hospitals of America
    310. Physician Insurers Association of America
    311. Professional Association of Health Care Office Managers
    312. Public Relations Society of America/Health Academy
    313. Radiology Business Management Association
    314. Scottsdale Institute
    315. Self-Insurance Institute of America
    316. Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America
    317. Society for Radiology Oncology Administrators
    318. Society for Social Work Leadership in Health Care
    319. Society of Chest Pain Centers and Providers
    320. Society of Hospital Medicine
    321. Society of Medical-Dental Management Consultants
    322. Texas Association for Home Care
    323. United Hospital Fund
    324. United Network for Organ Sharing
    325. Universal Health Care Action Network
    326. The Urban Institute
    327. Visiting Nurse Association of America
    328. Volunteer Trustees
    329. Volunteers in Health Care

    Medical Journals and Magazines
    1. AIDS
    2. American Journal of Medicine
    3. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
    4. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
    5. American Journal of Clinical Oncology
    6. American Journal Of Preventative Medicine
    7. American Journal of Physical Anthropology
    8. American Journal Of Hospice And Palliative Medicine
    9. Annals of Oncology
    10. American Journal of Psychiatry
    11. American Journal of Kidney Diseases
    12. American Journal of Public Health
    13. Annals of Surgical Oncology
    14. Annals Of Internal Medicine
    15. Annual Review Of Public Health
    16. American Journal Of Public Health
    17. American Journal of Human Biology
    18. American Naturalist
    19. Anesthesia & Analgesia
    20. Applied & Environmental Microbiology
    21. Animal Behaviour
    22. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
    23. Annals of Medicine
    24. Annals. Entomological Society of America
    25. Annals of Emergency Medicine
    26. Archives of Ophthalmology
    27. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
    28. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
    29. The Auk
    30. BMC Pediatrics
    31. Biochemistry
    32. Biomednet Journals
    33. Breast Cancer Wellness Magazine
    34. British Journal of Surgery
    35. Blood
    36. Bulletin Of The World Health Organization
    37. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
    38. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society
    39. Biotechnology & Bioengineering
    40. BMJ: The British Medical Journal
    41. Blood
    42. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society
    43. Botany (formerly the Canadian Journal of Botany)
    44. British Medical Journal
    45. & Cognition
    46. Canadian Journal of Forest Research
    47. Cancer
    48. Cancer
    49. Coping with Cancer
    50. Cancer Fighters Thrive
    51. Cancer Research
    52. Cancer Today Magazine
    53. Cancer Journal for Clinicians
    54. Cell
    55. ,
    56. Chest
    57. Circulation
    58. Clinical Cancer Research
    59. Clinical Cardiology Journal
    60. Clinical Infectious Diseases
    61. Conservation Biology
    62. Critical Care Medicine
    63. Current Biology
    64. Cancer Cytopathology
    65. Development
    66. Diabetes
    67. Drug Safety
    68. Ecology
    69. Elsevier
    70. Epidemiologic Reviews
    71. EMBO Journal
    72. Environmental Research
    73. Evolution
    74. FASEB Journal
    75. Gastroenterology
    76. Genetics
    77. Harvard Health Journal
    78. Health Services Research Journal
    79. Human Gene Therapy
    80. Immunology
    81. Irish Medical Journal
    82. International Journal of Plant Sciences
    83. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association
    84. Journal Of Aging And Health
    85. Journal Of Adolescent Health
    86. Journal of Allergy & Clinical Immunology
    87. Journal of Anatomy
    88. ,
    89. Journal of Bacteriology
    90. Journal of Biological Chemistry
    91. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery
    92. Journal of Cell Biology
    93. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
    94. Journal of Ecology
    95. Journal of Experimental Biology
    96. Journal of Experimental Botany
    97. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology
    98. Journal of Experimental Zoology
    99. Journal of Fish Biology
    100. Journal of Herpetology
    101. ,
    102. Journal of Human Evolution
    103. ,
    104. Journal of Immunology
    105. Journal of Mammalogy
    106. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
    107. Journal of Molecular Biology
    108. Journal of Natural History
    109. Journal of Paleontology
    110. Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics
    111. Journal of Plant Research
    112. Journal of Shellfish Research
    113. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
    114. Journal of the American College of Surgeons
    115. Journal of the American Dental Association
    116. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
    117. Journal of the National Cancer Institute
    118. Journal Of The American Medical Association
    119. Journal of Clinical Oncology
    120. Journal of Human Evolution
    121. Journal Of Clinical Investigation
    122. Journal of Global Oncology
    123. Journal of Oncology Practice
    124. Journal of Urology
    125. Journal of Virology
    126. Journal of Zoology
    127. JCO Precision Oncology
    128. JCO Clinical Cancer Informatics
    129. Limnology & Oceanography
    130. Mayo Clinic Proceedings
    131. Medical Care
    132. Medical Journal Of Australia
    133. Molecular & Cellular Biology
    134. Molecular & Cellular Proteomics
    135. Nature
    136. Nature Biotechnology
    137. Nature Genetics
    138. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
    139. Neurology
    140. New England Journal of Medicine
    141. NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine
    142. Nou Magazine: Women Survivors
    143. Nucleic Acids Research
    144. Pancreas
    145. Pediatrics
    146. Plant Ecology
    147. Plant Physiology
    148. Preventative Medicine
    149. Patient Resource Cancer Guide
    150. Physician's Weekly
    151. PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    152. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B - Biological Sciences
    153. PubMed
    154. Radiology
    155. Remedy
    156. Science Daily News
    157. Science Magazine
    158. Systematic Botany
    159. The American Journal of Botany
    160. The Journal of Zoology
    161. The American Journal of Physical Anthropology
    162. The Lancet
    163. The Journal of Paleontology
    164. The Physician and Sports Medicine
    165. Virology
    166. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine

    Health Care References

    Allergy Escape
    Alternative Medicine
    Alzheimer's Facing
    About Autism
    Autism Secrets
    Brain Aneurysm
    Brain Aneurysms Treatment
    Cancer Warning Signs
    Cardiovascular: Info on Treatments
    Cardiac Rehabilitation Guide
    Cardiac Rehabilitation
    CDC A-Z Index
    Colds & Influenza: Difference
    Communicable Disease Quick Facts
    Consumers & Patients
    COVID-19 - An Overview
    Computer & Internet Addiction
    Diabetes Facts
    Doctor: Find & Read Doctor Reviews
    Family Doctor
    H1N1 Swine Flu - Video
    Health News
    Heart & Nuts
    Human Blood Types
    Health Insurance Rights & Protections
    Diseases Symptoms References
    Health Content A-Z
    Eating Red Meat vs Death Risk
    Health Care Quality
    Health Care Research
    Health Encyclopedia
    Health Information and Treatment
    Health News - Medical Treatment
    High Blood Pressure/Hypertension
    Kidney Patient Guide
    Mad Cow Disease
    MedScape: Health News and Journals
    Medical Dictionary
    Medical News & Discussion
    NIH: Health Information
    Pure Intimacy: Recovering
    SARS - An Overview
    Sexually Transmitted Disease
    Surgeon General
    Recalls, Withdrawals and Safety
    Understanding of Cancer Types
    WHO: Health Care
    Women and Heart Disease


    FDA.Gov: Medication Guides - Medication Guides address issues that are specific to particular drugs and drug classes, and they contain FDA-approved information that can help patients avoid serious adverse events.

    Healthcare.Gov - Health reform puts American families and small business owners in control of their own health care.

    World Health Organization (WHO) - WHO, a United Nations organization providing health support to countries, monitoring and assessing health trends.

    FDA.Gov: Recalls, Market Withdrawals, & Safety Alerts - The site provides information gathered from press releases and other public notices about certain recalls of FDA-regulated products. - Healthy People provides science-based, 10-year national objectives for improving the health of all Americans. -, a government Web site that provides health information for individuals and families. -, a government Web site that provides health information for women. -, a government Web site that help girls (ages 10 to 16) learn about health, growing up, and issues they may face. -, a government Web site that provides about healthcare research and quality.

    Harvard School of Public Health - The Harvard School of Public Health has been at the forefront of efforts to benefit the health of populations worldwide. Its landmark discoveries and world-class graduates have saved lives and lifted the burden of disease around the globe. -, an online, healthcare media publishing company, provides the trusted source for online health and medical information for consumers.

    AfterDeployment.Org - An online resource supporting Service Members, their Families, and Veterans, with common post-deployment concerns. The website provides self-care solutions targeting post-traumatic stress, depression, anger, sleep, relationship concerns, and other mental health challenges.

    USP.Org - The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) - a non–governmental, official public standards–setting authority for medicines sold in the United States - provides safe harbors for manufacturers of medicines, dietary supplements, and other health care products, helping them to comply with regulatory requirements.

    Medlineplus.Gov - Provides information about diseases, conditions, and wellness issues. These include directories, a medical encyclopedia and a medical dictionary, easy-to-understand tutorials on common conditions, tests, and treatments, health information, extensive information on prescription and nonprescription drugs, health information from the media, and links to thousands of clinical trials.

    FDA.Gov - Provides information about infectious diseases, travel medicine and epidemiology. provides users with credible, reliable health information on data and statistics, diseases and conditions, emergencies and disasters, environmental health, healthy living, injury, violence and safety, life stages and populations, workplace safety and health, travelers' health, and more.

    CDC.Gov - Provides information about drugs. The agency is responsible for protecting the public health by assuring the safety, efficacy and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation.

    Cancer.Gov - Provides information about cancer with respect to the cause, diagnosis, prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and the continuing care of cancer patients and the families of cancer patients.

    HealthCare.Gov - Take health care into your own hands, explore insurance coverage options and learn about how the Affordable Care Act impacts you. Find information for individuals, families, senior citizens, people with disabilities, young adults and employers.

    Health Care in America - America's $2.2-trillion-a-year medical complex is enormously wasteful, ill-targeted, inefficient, and unfair. The best medical care is extremely good, but the rest is bad and falling apart. CDC is trying to examine how American health care utilization is changing and what data gaps exist in its understanding of the evolving health care delivery system in America. A proposal ...

    Innerbody - Interactive Human Anatomy - Study the anatomy of the human body is fun. You can understand how the following parts of your body work - Appendix, Bladder, Brain, Gallbladder, Female genitals, Heart, Kidneys, Large intestine, Liver, Lungs, Male genitals, Pancreas, Skin, Spleen, Small intestine, Stomach, Voice box,...

    NPR: Health Care - Prognosis Negative Again for Medicare - Better Tests Needed to Control Tuberculosis - Why Kids Curse - Tool Reassesses Osteoporosis Risk - For Spring, an Attempt to Forgo Meat - Stopping Deaths From Incorrect Drug Doses - How to Get a Good Night's Sleep...

    Let's Stop Running Scared - Guess I Should Have My Prostate Checked. Maybe I Need Prozac. Is There A Pill For This?  Aren't You On Lipitor? Uh-Oh, Is This A Heart Attack? I Just Can't Sleep. Time For A Breast Exam? Is That Mole Getting Bigger? Oh, My Knee! What's Pre-Diabetes Anyway? Am I Shrinking?" - " Overtreated: Why Too Much Medicine Is Making Us Sicker and Poorer" by Shannon Brownlee. NPR Interview.

    Live Longer, Better Wiser - How To Live To 100 - With advance in medicine, healthier eating habits, less smoking and doing exercises, people have a greater possibility of living longer than at any time in the previous generations. This includes eating a heart-healthy diet, staying connected and current keeps brain working, watching your waist, drinking moderately (e.g.; tea, wine intake, coffee), making friends at work, and more... - Information About Health - Provides best-of-breed health information and online tools aimed at helping individuals take control of their well-being. - What Medical Facts Should People Be Aware Of? - What should people know about minor injuries and about distinguishing things that need professional treatment from things that do not.

    WebMD - Better Information - Better Health - - Provides valuable health information, tools for managing your health, and support to those who seek information.

    Ask The Expert - Questions & Answers About Medicine - Doctors Lounge is one of the most popular online medical resources for physicians, students and allied clinical professionals. It provides clinical information through multimedia tutorials and other study aids. Both patients and professionals can seek answers to medical questions via the public discussion medical forums.

    Ask a Patient - Medicine Ratings and Health Care Opinions - - Provides reports on patient ratings and rankings of pharmaceuticals and prescription drug side effects. Database includes FDA-approved pharmaceuticals.

    Health Central - - Provides medical information for patients and caregivers, and fosters a rich community of patients and experts who share their experiences, "real-world" learning and support as they manage their day-to-day lives & health.

    Medifocus - Trusted Medical Information - Provides unique in-depth health information tool that covers various medical issues such as cancer, heart ailments, and chronic childhood conditions.

    NIH - The Steward of Medical & Behavioral Research Center - One of the world's foremost medical research centers in the US. - Reliable Resources for Health and Disease - - Provides guide to health information, illness and, wellness, among others.

    University of Rochester Medical Center - Health Encyclopedia - A goldmine of good medical and health information containing comprehensive, accurate, unbiased, and reliable database of health articles and reference materials.

    Health Sources -  Details on Health Issues and Solutions. - If your body is telling you that you’re not quite right then there are loads of ways for check out. Here are the practical articles for health, illness and wellness.

    Young Scot - Discuss About Drinking, Smoking, Drugs, and Sexual Health. - Health is not all about medicines and illnesses believe it or not. It's more about how you feel about yourself, both physically and mentally.

    NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases - National Resource Center - - Provides patients, health professionals, and the public with an important link to resources and information on metabolic bone diseases.

    University of York, York, UK - Effective Health Care Bulletins - Effective Health Care is a bulletin for decision makers which examines the effectiveness of a variety of health care interventions.

    The American Journal of Medicine - "The Green Journal" publishes original clinical research of interest to physicians in internal medicine, both in academia and community-based practice. It is the official journal of The Association of Professors of Medicine, a prestigious group comprised of chairs of departments of internal medicine at more than 125 medical schools across the country.

    American Heart Association - Provides information about healthier lives, free of cardiovascular diseases and stroke.

    American Lung Association - Provides information and resources to prevent lung disease and promote lung health.

    American Cancer Society - Provides information & resources for cancer: breast, colon, prostate, lung and more.

    Info Center

    Human Body & Mind
  • Organs Anatomy
  • Nervous Anatomy
  • Organs - Appendix
  • Bladder
  • Female Genitals
  • Fish Oils & Brainpower
  • Gall Bladder
  • Heart
  • Kidneys
  • Liver
  • Large Intestine
  • Lungs
  • Male Genitals
  • Nerve Cells & Nerves
  • Pancreas
  • Peripheral Nervous System
  • Sight
  • Skin
  • Small Intestine
  • Smell
  • Spinal Cord
  • Spleen
  • Stomach
  • Touch
  • Voice box
  • Intelligence

  • Hospitals
  • Find a Top Hospital
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  • Health & Wellness

    What to check when you reach:

    a. 20s to 30s:
    b. 40s:
    c. 50s:
    d. 60s:

    Human Body's Organs

    Our human body uses organs working in coordination to form a number of biological systems, including circulatory system, digestive system, endocrine system, reproductive system, respiratory system, urinary system, and integumentary system, to perform specific functions necessary for our daily living. There are 78 main organs within the human body, of which the brain, heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys are essential for survival.

    1. Adrenal Glands
    2. Anus
    3. Appendix
    4. Arteries
    5. Bladder
    6. Blood Vessels
    7. Bones
    8. Bone Marrow
    9. Bulbourethral Glands
    10. Brain
    11. Bronchi
    12. Capillaries
    13. Clitoris
    14. Cerebellum
    15. Colon (Large Intestine)
    16. Diaphragm
    17. Ears
    18. Epididymis
    19. Esophagus
    20. Eyes
    21. Fallopian Tubes (Uterine)
    22. Foramen Ovale (Heart)
    23. Foramen Ovale (Skull)
    24. Gallbladder
    25. Heart
    26. Hypothalamus
    27. Interstitium
    28. Joints and Ligaments
    29. Kidneys
    30. Larynx
    31. Ligament
    32. Liver
    33. Lungs
    34. Lymph Nodes
    35. Lymphatic Vessels
    36. Mammary Glands
    37. Mesentery
    38. Mouth
    39. Nasal Cavity (Inner Nose)
    40. Nose
    41. Nervous System
    42. Ovary
    43. Olfactory Epithelium
    44. Parathyroid Glands
    45. Pancreas
    46. Penis
    47. Pharynx and Epiglottis
    48. Placenta
    49. Pineal Gland
    50. Pituitary Gland
    51. Prostate
    52. Rectum
    53. Salivary Glands
    54. Scrotum
    55. Seminal Vesicles
    56. Skeletal Muscle
    57. Skin
    58. Small Intestine
    59. Spinal Cord
    60. Spleen
    61. Stomach
    62. Subcutaneous Tissue
    63. Teeth
    64. Tendon
    65. Testes
    66. Thymus Gland
    67. Thyroid Gland
    68. Tonsils
    69. Trachea
    70. Tongue
    71. Ureters
    72. Urethra
    73. Urinary System
    74. Uterus
    75. Vagina
    76. Vas Deferens
    77. Veins
    78. Vulva

    Number of Deaths for Leading Causes of Death in 2019 in the US
    • Heart disease: 659,041
    • Cancer: 599,601
    • Accidents (unintentional injuries): 173,040
    • Chronic lower respiratory diseases: 156,979
    • Stroke (cerebrovascular diseases): 150,005
    • Alzheimer’s disease: 121,499
    • Diabetes: 87,647
    • Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis: 51,565
    • Influenza and pneumonia: 49,783
    • Intentional self-harm (suicide): 47,511

    Mortality in the United States, 2018

    Top Causes of Death in 2017 Worldwide
    • Heart Diseases: 17,790,000
    • Cancers: 9,560,000
    • Respiratory Diseases: 3,091,000
    • Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases: 2,056,000
    • Dementia: 2,051,000
    • Digestive Diseases: 2,038,000
    • Neonatal Disorders: 1,078,000
    • Diarrhaoeal Disease: 1,057,000
    • Diabetes: 1,037,000
    • Liver Diseases: 1,032,000
    • Road Injury: 1,024,000
    • Tuberculosis: 1,018,000

    Number of the death of cancer in 2015 (Worldwide)

    Top Causes of Death in 2012 Worldwide
    • Heart Disease: 7,400,000
    • Stroke (Cerebrovascular Diseases): 6,700,000
    • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): 3,100,000
    • Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases: 3,100,000
    • Lung Cancer: 1,600,000
    • HIV/IADS: 1,500,000
    • Diarrhaoeal Disease: 1,500,000
    • Diabetes: 1,500,000
    • Road Injury: 1,300,000
    • Hypertensive Heart Disease: 1,100,000

    Number of the death in 2012 (U.S.)
    • Oral cavity & pharynx: 40,250
    • Digestive system: 284,680
    • Respiratory system: 244,180
    • Bones & joints: 2,890
    • Soft tissue (including heart): 11,280
    • Skin: 81,240
    • Breast: 229,060
    • Genital system: 340,650
    • Urinary system: 141,140
    • Eye & orbit: 2,610
    • Brain & other nervous system: 22,910
    • Endocrine system: 58,980
    • Lymphoma: 79,190
    • Myeloma: 21,700
    • Leukemia: 47,150
    • Others: 31,000

    Number of the death  in 2011 (U.S.)
    • Oral cavity & pharynx: 39,400
    • Digestive system: 277,570
    • Respiratory system: 239,320
    • Bones & joints: 2,810
    • Soft tissue (including heart): 10,980
    • Skin: 76,330
    • Breast: 232,620
    • Genital system: 338,620
    • Urinary system: 132,900
    • Eye & orbit: 2,570
    • Brain & other nervous system: 22,340
    • Endocrine system: 50,400
    • Lymphoma: 75,190
    • Myeloma: 20,520
    • Leukemia: 44,600
    • Others: 30,500

    Number of the death of cancer in 2008 (U.S.)

    Top Causes of Death in the U.S in 2007
    • Heart disease: 616,067
    • Cancer: 562,875
    • Stroke (cerebrovascular diseases): 135,952
    • Chronic lower respiratory diseases: 127,924
    • Accidents (unintentional injuries): 123,706
    • Alzheimer's disease: 74,632
    • Diabetes: 71,382
    • Influenza and Pneumonia: 52,717
    • Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis: 46,448
    • Septicemia: 34,828

    About Cancer

    Cancer Prevention and Control

    Warning Signs of Cancer
    There are more than 100 different types of cancer, but they all are a group of diseases of body's cells. When normal cells lose their ability to limit and grow disorderly, their tissues will be produced too much and tumors begin to form. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors are not cancer; malignant tumors are cancer. The signs of cancer may include:
    • Change in bladder or bowel habits;
    • A sore that does not heal;
    • Unusual bleeding;
    • Thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere;
    • Indigestion or difficulty swallowing;
    • Obvious change in a mole or wart;
    • Nagging cough or hoarseness.
    These signs can be caused by cancer or by other problems. It's important to see a doctor if any of these symptoms lasts over 15 days. Don't wait for symptoms to become painful; pain is not an early sign of cancer.

    Warning Signs of Lung Cancer

    Usually there are no warning signs of early lung cancer. By the time most people with lung cancer have symptoms, the cancer has become more serious.

    Symptoms of lung cancer may include:

    • A cough that doesn't go away or gets worse
    • Breathing trouble, like shortness of breath
    • Coughing up blood
    • Chest pain
    • Hoarseness or wheezing
    • Pneumonia that doesn't go away or that goes away and comes back

    In addition, you may feel very tired, have a loss of appetite, or unexplained weight loss.

    Warning Signs of Breast Cancer

    Breast pain can be a symptom of cancer. Different people have different symptoms of breast cancer. Some people do not have any signs or symptoms at all.

    Some warning signs of breast cancer are:

    • New lump in the breast or underarm (armpit).
    • Thickening or swelling of part of the breast.
    • Irritation or dimpling of breast skin.
    • Redness or flaky skin in the nipple area or the breast.
    • Pulling in of the nipple or pain in the nipple area.
    • Nipple discharge other than breast milk, including blood.
    • Any change in the size or the shape of the breast.
    • Pain in any area of the breast.

    Keep in mind that these symptoms can happen with other conditions that are not cancer.

    Warning Signs of Pancreatic Cancer
    Pancreatic cancer is seldom detected at its early stages when it's most curable. This is because it often doesn't cause symptoms until after it has spread to other organs. Its early warning signs of pancreatic cancer may include:
    • Abdominal pain that radiates to your back
    • Loss of appetite or unintended weight loss
    • Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice)
    • Light-colored stools
    • Dark-colored urine
    • Itchy skin
    • New diagnosis of diabetes or existing diabetes that's becoming more difficult to control
    • Blood clots

    Warning Signs of Heart Attack
    Heart Attack Warning Signs:
    • Lightheadedness and shortness of breath without or without chest discomfort.
    • Discomfort in other areas of the body; symptoms can include pain, numbness, tingling or discomfort in one or both arms (especially the left one), jaw, neck, stomach, back, nausea and/or vomiting. (Women are more likely than men to have neck and shoulder pain along with other symptoms).
    • Chest discomfort or pain that is crushing or squeezing in the center of the chest that lasts more than a few minutes, or squeezing or feels like a heavy weight on the chest, or this goes away and comes back. It can feel like uncomfortable pressure, squeezing, fullness or pain.
    • Fact action can save lives; don't wait more than five minutes to call 911.

    Warning Signs of Strokes
    Posterior circulations strokes occurs when a blood vessel in the back part of the brain is blocked causing the death of brain cells, the warning signs may include:
    • Sudden numbness or weakness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body.
    • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or difficulty understanding speech.
    • Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes, double vision or other vision problems.
    • Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance, or lack of coordination.
    • Sudden severe headache with no known cause.
    • Vertigo, like the room, is spinning.
    • Imbalance.
    • Nausea and or vomiting.

    Warning Signs of Pneumonia

    Pneumonia disease makes it harder for your lungs to absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. The signs and symptoms of pneumonia:

    • Cough, which may produce greenish, yellow or even bloody mucus
    • Chills that make you shake
    • Feeling very tired
    • Feeling like you can’t catch your breath, especially when you move around a lot
    • High fever, up to 105 F
    • Sweating a lot
    • Shortness of breath
    • Fast breathing and heartbeat
    • Rapid, shallow breathing
    • Lips and fingernails turning blue
    • Sharp or stabbing chest pain that gets worse when you breathe deeply or cough
    • Loss of appetite, low energy, and fatigue
    • Nausea and vomiting, especially in small children
    • Confusion, especially in older people

    Warning Signs of Kidney Disease

    More than 37 million American adults are living with kidney disease and most are not aware of it. There are a number of physical signs of kidney disease:

    • More tired
    • Less energy
    • Short of breath
    • Trouble concentrating
    • Poor sleeping
    • Dry and itchy skin
    • Urinate more or less often
    • Blood in urine
    • Foamy urine
    • Persistent puffiness around eyes
    • Swollen ankles and feet
    • Nausea or vomiting
    • Poor appetite
    • Weight loss
    • Muscle cramp

    Warning Signs of Lupus
    Lupus Warning Signs:

    Warning Signs of Ulcerative Colitis
    Ulcerative colitis is a form of colitis, a disease of the colon (large intestine), that includes characteristic ulcers, or open sores. The main symptom of active disease is usually constant diarrhea mixed with blood, of gradual onset. The signs of cancer may include:
    • Cramping and Abdominal Pain;
    • Bloody Stool;
    • Urgency;
    • Sleep Interruption;
    • Weight Loss;
    • Dehydration;
    • Frequency of Symptoms.
    These signs can be caused by ulcerative colitis or by other problems. It's important to see a doctor if any of these symptoms occurs frequently. Don't wait for symptoms to become painful.

    Warning Signs of Lung Disease

    Early signs of lung disease are easy to overlook. The signs and symptoms can differ by the type of lung disease. Common signs are:

    • Lack of usual level of energy
    • Trouble breathing
    • Shortness of breath
    • Feeling like not getting enough air
    • Decreased ability to exercise
    • A cough that won't go away
    • Coughing up blood or mucus
    • Pain or discomfort when breathing in or out

    Make sure to call your doctor if you have any of these symptoms.

    Warning Signs and Symptoms for Asthma

    Asthma is a common disease that affects the lungs; early warning Asthma signs:

    • Itchy chin
    • Itchy, glassy or watery eyes
    • Itchy, scratchy, or sore throat
    • Runny, stuffy or congested nose
    • Rubbing nose a lot
    • Increased tiredness
    • Mood change – grouchy or extra quiet
    • Thirst
    • Sneezing
    • Wheezing
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Chest tightness
    • Shortness of breath
    • Rapid breathing
    • A cough that doesn’t go away, especially during exercise, while laughing, or at night
    • Stomach ache
    • Headache
    • Fever
    • Feeling restless
    • Change in face color – pale or flushed
    • Dark circles under eyes
    • Throat clearing
    • Peak Flow readings in the "Yellow Zone"
    • Eczema flare-up
    • Waking up at night

    Asthma can be hard to diagnose. The signs of asthma can seem like the signs of COPDpneumoniabronchitispulmonary embolismanxiety, and  heart disease.

    Make sure to consult with your doctor if you have one or more these signs to prevent an asthma attack that happens when your airways narrow, which makes it hard for you to breathe in air, after being irritated.

    COVID-19 Vaccines

    There are four reliable COVID-19 vaccines, Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna, AstraZeneca/Oxford, and Johnson & Johnson (Janssen), which are widely recognized in the world. The effectiveness of these vaccines is varied ranging from 70% to 95%:

    You may have side effects after having one of these vaccine injections, one or both doses. Most side effects of these vaccines have been minor. When side effects occur, they typically last just a few days. This may be an enhanced reaction as the body is building immunity. Common side effects include:

    • Fatigue
    • Headache
    • Fever
    • Muscle aches
    • Chills
    • Nausea and vomiting
    • Pain or redness at the injection site
    • Painful, swollen lymph nodes in the arm where the vaccine was injected

    If you have body aches, fever, fatigue, chills, and/or headaches, you may treat with fluids, rest, and take the following medicines (as needed): Tylenol (acetaminophen), Advil, Motrin (ibuprofen), Aleve (naproxen sodium) or Aspirin.

    If you have redness, itching, warmth at the injection site, you may be considered a mild allergic reaction, and you may treat with antihistamines, such as Benadryl (diphenhydramine), Allegra (fexofenadine), Claritin (loratadine) Zyrtec (cetirizine) or topical steroid creams like cortizone.

    If side effects last more than 72 hours, contact your doctor. It takes up to 2 weeks for the vaccine to be fully effective.

    Heart Disease
    The coronary heart disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S. According to the CDC,
    • About 600,000 people die of heart disease in the United States every year–that’s 1 in every 4 deaths.
    • Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women. More than half of the deaths due to heart disease in 2009 were in men.
    • Coronary heart disease is the most common type of heart disease, killing more than 385,000 people annually.
    • Every year about 715,000 Americans have a heart attack. Of these, 525,000 are a first heart attack and 190,000 happen in people who have already had a heart attack.
    • Coronary heart disease alone costs the United States $108.9 billion each year. This total includes the cost of health care services, medications, and lost productivity.
    • About 47% of sudden cardiac deaths occur outside a hospital.
    High blood pressure, high LDL cholesterol, and smoking are key risk factors for heart disease. About half of Americans (49%) have at least one of these three risk factors. Several other medical conditions and lifestyle choices can also put people at a higher risk for heart disease, including: diabetes, overweight and obesity, poor diet, physical inactivity, and excessive alcohol use.

    Human Body Facts

    • The human brain cell can hold information as much as 400 terabytes.
    • Brain nerve impulses travel as fast as 170 miles per hour.
    • The brain operates at a power of 10-watt light bulb.
    • The brain uses over a quarter of the oxygen used by the human body.
    • Hundreds of billions of neurons carry electrical signals that control the body from the brain and the spinal cord.
    • The brain is much more active at night than during the day.
    • Diseases of the brain include Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis, which cause limitation of the normal function of the human brain.
    • The more you dream, the higher your I.Q.
    • Most dreams were only stored 2-3 seconds in the brain.
    • The colder when you sleep, the better chances you have bad dreams.
    • 80% of the brain is water.
    • About 75% of human waste is made of water.
    • The average bladder holds about 400-800 cc of fluid.
    • The left lung is smaller than the right lung.
    • Lungs transport oxygen from the air you breathe into your bloodstream while taking away carbon dioxide, which is released into the air when you breathe out.
    • The lung capacity can be increased with regular exercise; a large lung capacity can send oxygen around the body faster and makes you healthier.
    • An average person breathes in around 11,000 liters of air every day, and when resting, the average adult breathes around 12 to 20 times a minute.
    • A sneeze can exceed the speed of 100 miles per hour (mph).
    • A cough releases an explosive charge of air that moves at speeds up to 60 mph.
    • Only one person in two billion will live to be 116 or older.
    • The human heart has enough pressure to squirt blood 30 feet high.
    • The heart beats more than 2.5 billion times in an average lifetime.
    • Most women’s hearts beat faster than men’s.
    • More than 20% of heart attacks occurred on Monday.
    • The acid in your stomach is strong enough to dissolve a pen.
    • Liver can perform 500 different functions.
    • The small intestine in a human body can range between 18 and 23 feet long.
    • The large intestine is, on average, 5 feet shorter than the small intestine.
    • Earwax production is necessary for good ear health.
    • Your ears produce more earwax when you are afraid.
    • The average human head has about 100,000 hairs.
    • About one third of the human eyes have 20-20 vision.
    • Infants blink eyes only one or twice a minute while adults average around 10.
    • As humans grow older, the lens in the eye grows thicker.
    • Your nose continues growing throughout your entire life and has special cells that help you smell many different odors and recognize up to 50,000 different scents.
    • There are about 9,000 taste buds on the surface of the tongue, in the throat, and on the roof of the mouth.
    • The longest recorded time for a person without sleeping is 264 hours (11 days).
    • An average human drinks about 16,000 gallons of water in a lifetime.
    • Stress is the main factor caused most diseases.
    • Depression, high blood pressure and heart disease are common diseases caused by stress.
    • Babies are born with 300 bones, but by adulthood the number is reduced to 206.
    • The average person takes 8,000 to 10,000 steps a day.
    • The human body has more than 600 individual skeletal muscles, 40% of the body's weight.
    • At the age of 60, 60% of men and 40% of women will snore.
    • The noise level of normal speech is 60 decibels.
    • Normal snores average is equivalent to the noise level of normal speech.
    • We are about 1 cm taller in the morning than in the evening.
    • The hardest bone in the human body is the jawbone.
    • The feet account for one quarter of all the human body’s bones.
    • Humans shed and regrow outer skin cells about every 27 days.
    • Three hundred million cells die in the human body every minute.
    • People living in high altitudes have more red blood cells than people living at sea level.
    • Men have 1.5 gallons of blood as compared to 0.875 gallons for women.
    • An adult human body produces 300 billion new cells daily.
    • An adult human body contains approximately 100 trillion cells.
    • An adult human body carries about 25 trillion red blood cells, which make up about 45% of blood's volume.
    • Red blood cells, which are created inside the bone marrow of your bones, carry oxygen around the body.
    • Every hour, about 180 million newly formed red blood cells enter the bloodstream.
    • White blood cells, or leukocytes, make up about 1% of blood. This number is increased rapidly when a body responds to infection.
    • The most common blood type in the world is Type O, which can be given to people with type A and type B blood.
    • Two rarest blood types are AB and A-H; so far, the A-HA has been only found in less than 20 people.
    • Human blood races through arteries at 3 feet or 90 centimeters per second.
    • Humans are the only animals to produce emotional tears.
    • Right-handed people live, on average, 9 years longer than left-handed people do.
    • Humans are the only animals to produce emotional tears.
    • About 4% of the world’s population having sex on any given day.
    • The average duration of sexual intercourse for humans is 2 minutes.
    • The heart, which continuously pumps oxygen and nutrient-rich blood throughout the body to sustain life, beats 100,000 times per day, pumping 5 or 6 quarts of blood each minute, or about 2,000 gallons of blood per day. Amazingly, it continues to beat even when it’s disconnected from the body.
    • A man's heart weighs less than 1 pound, and on average is 2 ounces heavier than a woman’s heart. A man’s heart beats slightly slower than a woman’s heart.
    • The sound of a heartbeat is caused by the heart valves opening and closing as they pumps blood. The valves open to allow blood to move in one direction and close to keep blood from backing up.
    • Skin physically protects bones, muscles, internal organs, blocks outside diseases, uses blood to regulate your body heat, and allows you to feel and react to heat and cold.

    Human Body Reactions

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