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    Did You Know?
    1. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), a 220-employee U.S. DoD research and development agency, not only created ARPANET, the foundation of the current Internet, and Global Positioning System (GPS) that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth, but has also invented many advanced technologies, such as building a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) plane; making a robot that would converse long distances without requiring a need to refuel or recharge; building cheaper and lightweight drones that can be launched from a mother ship; fabricating and flying a reusable aircraft to the edge of space; inventing an unmanned oblique-wing flying aircraft for high speed, long range and long endurance flight; developing autonomous, large-size, unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) capable of long-duration missions and having large payload capacities; and using AI to identify and fix software vulnerabilities.
    2. Quantum computers and supercomputers are powerful machines used to perform complex calculations, solve problems, and analyze data but they differ in their underlying technology and applications. Supercomputers consist of thousands or hundreds of thousands of central processing units (CPUs) working together to perform incredibly complex calculations and simulations that could never be achieved by humans or any computers. Quantum computers use quantum bits (qubits) instead of binary bits to store and process information to perform many calculations at once for tackling complex problems that require massive amounts of data to be processed quickly.
    3. Semiconductors, or microchips, are an essential component of electronic devices such as computers, printers, cars and mobile phones. They are materials that have a conductivity between conductors (generally metals) and insulators (nonconductors, e.g., most ceramics). Semiconductors can be pure elements, such as silicon or germanium, or compounds such as gallium arsenide or cadmium selenide; in a doping process, small amounts of impurities are added to pure semiconductors causing large changes in the conductivity of the material.
    4. German physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck was the first person to notice a semiconducting effect, in 1821, he discovered that when two wires made from dissimilar metals are joined at two ends to form a loop (known as a thermocouple), and if the two junctions are maintained at different temperatures, a voltage develops in the circuit; later, in 1823, Řrsted called this phenomenon thermoelectric effect. In 1834, Jean Peltier, a French physicist, discovered another second thermoelectric effect that when a current flows through a circuit containing a junction of two dissimilar metals, heat is either absorbed or liberated at the junction. Their efforts contributed to the semiconductor development.
    5. Pi=3.1415926 is equivalent to "May I have a large container of coffee" when replacing each number by word's letter on a phone key board.
    6. Take any three figure number in which the first figure is larger than the last, say 754. Reverse it, making 457 and subtract the smaller from the larger (i.e.; 754-457), making 297. Now add the result to the same number reversed, 792. The answer is (297+ 792) = 1089, and will be 1089 whatever number you start with.
    7. 111,111,111 x 111,111,111 = 12,345,678,987,654,321
    8. 1 x 9 x 12345679 = 111,111,111; 2 x 9 x 12345679 = 222,222,222; 3 x 9 x 12345679 = 333,333,333; 4 x 9 x 12345679 = 444,444,444; 5 x 9 x 12345679 = 555,555,555
    9. 6 x 9 x 12345679 = 666,666,666; 7 x 9 x 12345679 = 777,777,777; 8 x 9 x 12345679 = 888,888,888; 9 x 9 x 12345679 = 999,999,999
    10. 2,520 can be divided by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 without having a fractional leftover.
    11. A brief history of black holes
      • 2014 - Stephen Hawking: 'There are no black holes', 'There is no escape from a black hole in classical theory, but quantum theory enables energy and information to escape'. Event horizon replaced by apparent horizon that allows some light through, and kills firewall.
      • 2012 - Firewall paradox - Escaping information ignites firewall, which cannot be reconciled with general relativity.
      • 2004 - Stephen Hawking accepted that information escapes from black holes; Swift gamma-ray burst mission launched.
      • 2000 - Scientist discovered that the evolution of supermassive black holes in the hearts of galaxies appears to be linked to the evolution of the galaxies themselves.
      • 1994 - Hubble Space Telescope provided evidence that super-massive black holes reside in the center of galaxies.
      • 1989 - Russian Space Agency launches Granat, using gamma-ray technology for deep imaging of galactic centers.
      • 1974 - Using quantum mechanics Stephen Hawking showed that black holes may not be black after all; they may emit a form of radiation.
      • 1971 - By combining X-ray, radio, and optical observations from telescopes scientists confirmed black hole candidate Cygnus X-1 by determining the mass of its companion star.
      • 1970 - Stephen Hawking defined modern theory of black holes.
      • 1967 - Scientists discover first good black hole candidate, Cygnus X-1.
      • 1964 - John Wheeler brought the concept of "collapsed stars" to the forefront by coining a new name for them: black holes
      • 1963 - Roy Kerr developed "black hole" equations showing that massive stars will ‘drag’ the spacetime around them like water swirling around a drain. Maarten Schmidt discovered that 3c273, an odd star-like point of light known as a quasar, is one of the most powerful objects in the universe.
      • 1939 - Robert Oppenheimer and Hartland Snyder mathematically proved Schwarzschild’s theories.
      • 1931 - Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar defied conventional wisdom by showing that 'heavy' stars would end their lives in a more exotic state than stars like the Sun.
      • 1916 - Before Albert Einstein could solve the equations in his own theory of gravity, Karl Schwarzschild defined a black hole and what later becomes known as the Schwarzschild radius.
        • Black holes emerged from general relativity; nothing, not even light, escapes event horizon
      • 1915 - Albert Einstein expanded his theory of relativity to include the effects of gravity, and published the General Theory of Relativity describing the curvature of space-time
      • 1796 - Simon Pierre LaPlace predicted the existence of black holes 1895 Wilhelm Roentgen discovers X-rays; he discovered the concept of 'dark stars' independent of Michell's 'dark stars".
      • 1783 - John Michell theorized the possibility of an object large enough to have an escape velocity greater than the speed of light; he suggested that the surface gravity of some stars could be so strong that not even light could escape from them.
      • 1686 - Sir Isaac Newton published his universal law of gravitation in a three-volume work known as the Principia.
    12. The US tech economy was $1.6 trillion in 2018, 9.2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The numbers are even more staggering from an equities perspective; the American tech industry accounts for a quarter of the value of the US stock market, some $34 trillion. There are half a million tech companies in the US with 34,000 new startups in 2017 alone. Globally, the tech industry topped $4.5 trillion in revenue in 2017 and is expected to reach $4.8 trillion in 2018. The US is the single-largest tech market in the world and accounts for 31 percent of the global tech market.
    13. Massachusetts Institute of Technology scientists predicted the devastating effect climate change will have on the densely-populated region of China, which stretches the length of the Yellow River. Deadly heatwaves that can kill people in six hours could leave the north China plain, a large area of China, uninhabitable by 2070 unless the country reduces its greenhouse gas emissions.
    14. The first laser was built in 1960 by Theodore H. Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories, based on theoretical work by Charles Hard Townes and Arthur Leonard Schawlow; Gordon Gould, an American physicist, is also credited with the invention of the laser. Lasers are used in optical disk drives, laser printers, barcode scanners, DNA sequencing instruments, fiber-optic communication, laser surgery and skin treatments, cutting and welding materials, devices for marking targets and measuring range and speed; and laser lighting displays in entertainment.
    15. John Bertrand Gurdon, an English developmental biologist, while working at the University of Oxford, successfully cloned a frog using intact nuclei from the somatic cells of a Xenopus tadpole; his experiments led to the development of tools and techniques for nuclear transfer and cloning widely used today.
    16. Charles Richard Drew, an African-American physician, while researching in the field of blood transfusions, developed improved techniques for blood storage, which led to the establishment of the American Red Cross blood banks early in World War II.
    17. Alec John Jeffreys, a British geneticist, discovered a method of showing variations between individuals' DNA, and developed genetic fingerprinting while working in the Department of Genetics at the University of Leicester; his invention is now used worldwide in forensic science to assist police detective work and to resolve paternity and immigration issues.
    18. For each degree higher or lower the thermostat is set for air conditioning or heating, the consumer can save 3% on such costs.
    19. The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
    20. Amazon Web Services, Google, and Microsoft capture 3/4 of all cloud platform revenue in 2018.
    21. IBM has 9,043 U.S. patents in 2017 and around 3,300 more than its next-most patent holder, Samsung Electronics.
    22. 15 the world's largest technology companies in terms of revenue in 2017:
    23. The global semiconductor industry is dominated by USA, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and European Union. The top 10 companies are:
    24. Fred Terman is considered as the fayrer of Silicon Valley. When Terman was dean of the School of Engineering at Stanford University, he was successful in attracting research support from a number of sources. He encouraged his graduates to start their own companies and faculty members to join as consultants and investors, and, in some instances, founding new companies in Silicon Valley.
    25. Luis von Ahn, Manuel Blum, Nicholas J. Hopper (all of Carnegie Mellon University), and John Langford (of IBM) developed and publicized the notion of a CAPTCHA, which is is a type of challenge-response test used in computing to determine whether or not the user is human. CAPTCHA requires a user to type the letters of a distorted image or digits that appears on the screen, search bots can not read these and so access control is established. The first CAPTCHAs are widely used to verify users who try to access a secure website.
    26. The prototype V164–8.0 MW wind turbine located in the Danish National Test Centre is the world’s largest and most powerful wind turbine, which is 720 feet tall, has 260-foot blades, and can generate 8 megawatts of power — enough to supply electricity for 7,500 average European households or about 3,000 American households. Britain has the most installed offshore wind capacity with 3.68 gigawatts while Denmark is a distant second with 1.27 gigawatts.
    27. John Bardeen is the only person in history to have received two Nobel Prizes in physics: first in 1956 with William Shockley and Walter Brattain for the invention of the transistor; and again in 1972 with Leon N Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer for a fundamental theory of conventional superconductivity known as the BCS theory.
    28. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was an Indian American astrophysicist who was awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize for Physics with William A. Fowler "for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars". His mathematical treatment of stellar evolution yielded many of the best current theoretical models of the later evolutionary stages of massive stars and black holes. The Chandrasekhar limit is named after him. He served on the University of Chicago faculty from 1937 until his death in 1995 at the age of 84.
    29. Wilson Greatbatch was building an oscillator to record heart sounds in the late 1950s and he built the first successful implantable pacemaker. The Chardack-Greatbatch pacemaker used Mallory mercuric oxide-zinc cells (mercury battery) for its energy source, driving a two transistor, transformer coupled blocking oscillator circuit, all encapsulated in epoxy resin, then coupled to electrodes placed into the myocardium of the patient's heart. This patented innovation led to further development of artificial cardiac pacemakers. John Alexander "Jack" Hopps was one of the pioneers of the artificial pacemaker.
    30. Peanut butter can be turned into diamonds with a technique that harnesses pressures higher than those found at the centre of the earth.
    31. Isaac Newton (1643-1727) formulated the laws of gravity, supposedly after pondering why an apple falls from a tree; Albert Einstein (1879-1955) expanded Newton's work by formulating the theory of general relativity. Einstein's Theory of Relativity and the development of quantum mechanics led to the replacement of Newtonian physics with a new physics which contains two parts, that describe different types of events in nature.
    32. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST), which is named after the astronomer Edwin Hubble, is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation. The Space Shuttle Discovery deploys the Hubble Space telescope 350 miles above the Earth.
    33. Nikola Tesla (1856 – 1943) was granted patents for a "system of transmitting electrical energy" and "an electrical transmitter", which were the ones of around 300 patents worldwide for his inventions.
    34. Sunlight takes a little more than 8 minutes to reach the Earth; this means that when we are looking at the sun as it as 8 minutes ago.
    35. Compared with our own Moon, which is about the same size, the Mercury planet reflects much less light. There's a lot more carbon dust thrown off from comets close to the Sun, where Mercury orbits -- about 50 times as much for Mercury as for our moon.
    36. Mercury, the first and smallest planet in the Solar System, speeds around the Sun in 88 Earth days, but takes almost 176 Earth days to go from sunrise to sunset. The temperatures during the day on Mercury can be 840° F; at night, the temperatures plummet to -300° F.
    37. Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. It has almost the Earth size, and is covered in thick clouds that are made mostly of carbon dioxide and acid. The surface temperature can be as high as 930° F, caused mostly by the clouds that trap the heat and reflect it back. One day on Venus is 243 Earth days, and its year is 225 Earth years.
    38. Earth is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.  Formed about 4.6 billion years ago, the Earth speeds around the Sun in 365 Earth days. The average temperatures on Earth is around 59° F.
    39. Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System. It is a “Red Planet” and the closest planet to Earth, has polar ice caps, suggesting the water is on Mars. Temperatures on Mars during the day are about 80° F, but at night drop to -270° F.
    40. Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar System. It has no surface because it is made mostly of gasses. The average temperature on Jupiter is -235° F. Jupiter has a day that lasts 9.9 Earth hours and a year that lasts 11.9 Earth years.
    41. Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest planet in the Solar System, after Jupiter. It is a gas giant planet with no surface to walk on. The average temperature on Saturn is -218° F. One day on Saturn is 10 Earth hours and one year is 29.46 Earth years.
    42. Uranus, has the third-largest planetary radius and fourth-largest planetary mass in the Solar System. It is a gas giant with no surface to walk on, and is a unique planet with its blue-green color caused by the methane gas that reflects back blue and green light. Only one pole of Uranus faces the Sun, while the other is in complete darkness. One side of Uranus gets 42 years of light, followed by 42 years of darkness. Uranus has a temperature of -323° F. The average day on Uranus is 17.9 Earth hours and a year is 84 Earth years.
    43. Neptune, which is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System, has many dwarf planets (i.e.; it isn’t large enough to be considered a planet). On this planet the winds blow over 1,200 miles per hour and the temperature is -350° F. One day on Neptune is equal to 19 Earth hours and one year is equal to 164.8 Earth years.
    44. The diameters of the Sun, the Earth and the Moon are 870,000 miles (1,391,000 kilometers), 7,926 miles (12,756 kilometers) and 2,173 miles (3,477 kilometers, respectively.
    45. Our Galaxy contains about 200 billion stars.
    46. On January 27, 1926, John Logie Baird, a Scottish inventor, gives the first public demonstration of a true television system in London, launching a revolution in communication and entertainment.
    47. 27 Science fictions that became Science Facts in 2012: Quadriplegic Uses Her Mind to Control Her Robotic Arm; Stem Cells Could Extend Human Life by over 100 Years; Self-Driving Cars; Eye Implants Give Sight to the Blind; First Unmanned Commercial Space Flight Docks with the ISS; Human Brain Is Hacked; First Planet with Four Suns Discovered;...
    48. NASA Kepler space telescope has uncovered 461 more potential new planets; this brings its counts to 2,740 new "candidate" worlds, 105 of which have been confirmed as planets, most of which are the size of Earth or a few times larger.
    49. Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit = (Temperature in degrees Celsius x 1.8) + 32; Temperature in degrees Celsius = (Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit - 32) x (5 / 9); Fahrenheit and Celsius are equal at -40 degrees.
    50. Nuclear power, which uses fission to create heat and electricity, provides around 14% of the world’s electricity.
    51. Nitrogen, which a colorless, odorless and tasteless gas, makes up around 78% of the air you breathe.
    52. Things invisible to the human eye can often be seen under Ultraviolet (UV) light.
    53. When hydrogen burns in the air, water is formed.
    54. Hydrofluoric acid can dissolve glass.
    55. The first electronic digital computer (ENIAC - the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator), which was developed in 1946 by the University of Pennsylvania, contained over 18,000 vacuum tubes.
    56. The hottest planet in the solar system is Venus, with an estimated surface temperature of 864 degrees F (462 degrees C).
    57. The temperature on the surface of Mercury exceeds 806 degrees F (430 degrees C) during the day, and, at night, plummets to minus 356 degrees F (minus 180 degrees C).
    58. The temperature at the center of the Earth is around 5,500 degrees Celsius.
    59. The Hubble Space Telescope weighs 12 tons (10,896 kilograms), is 43 feet (13.1 meters) long, and cost $2.1 billion to originally build.
    60. Sound travels about 4 times faster in water than in air.
    61. The Saturn has a density lower than water. So, if placed in water it would float.
    62. The Jupiter is larger than the Earth around 1,000 times. Europa, Jupiter’s moon, is completely covered in ice.
    63. Electricity travels at the speed of light more than 186,000 miles per second!.
    64. The first power plant owned by Thomas Edison opened in New York City in 1882.
    65. The Earth orbits the Sun at 66,700mph. The Moon is moving away from the Earth at about 34cm per year.
    66. There are over 100 billion galaxies in the universe. The largest galaxies contain nearly 400 billion stars.
    67. The Sun, composed mostly of helium and hydrogen, has a surface temperature of 6,000 degrees Celsius.
    68. Sahara (around 93,500,000 square miles) is the largest desert in the world.
    69. Lake Baikal (Baikal) in Siberia, Russia is the deepest lake (1,620m deep) and the oldest lake (25 million years old) in the world.
    70. The highest waterfall (979m) in the world is the Angel Falls in Venezuela.
    71. The deepest part of the ocean is 35,813 feet (10,916 meters) deep and occurs in the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean. At that depth the pressure is 18,000 pounds (9172 kilograms) per square inch.
    72. There are A batteries (AA and AAA), then C, and then D. Where are all the B batteries?
    73. Iron is key to reversing global warming.
    74. Lung Doctors expect respiratory diseases will worsen with global climate change.
    75. Memory, speed, flexibility, problem solving, and attention are five major critical elements of brain health and performance used to measure IQ.
    76. Bifocals are eyeglasses with two distinct optical powers. Benjamin Franklin (1706 - 1790) is credited with the invention of original bifocal spectacle lenses in 1784.
    77. As of 2011, nuclear power plants provide about 6% of the world's energy and 13–14% of the world's electricity. There were 439 nuclear power reactors in operation in the world, operating in 31 countries. The U.S. had 104, France: 58, Japan: 55, Russia: 32, South Korea: 21, India: 20, U.K: 19, Canada: 18 and Germany: 17. The working life of a nuclear power plant is approximately 40 years.
    78. The first American woman in space was Sally K. Ride who was aboard Challenger STS-7 on June 18, 1983.
    79. The first American woman to walk in space was Kathryn D. Sullivan who was aboard Challenger STS-41G on October 11, 1984.
    80. The first American woman to make three spaceflights was Shannon W. Lucid, who was aboard STS-51G Discovery (June 17-24, 1985), STS-34 Atlantis (October 18-23, 1989), and STS-43 Atlantis (August 2-11, 1991).
    81. The first African American to fly in space was Guion S. Bluford, Jr, who was aboard Challenger STS-8 on August 30, 1983.
    82. Challenger STS 51L was launched on January 28, 1986, but exploded 73 seconds after lift-off.
    83. The first U.S. satellite launched into orbit was Explorer 1, which was launched on January 31, 1958.
    84. Bifocals, which are eyeglasses with two distinct optical powers, were developed around 1760 by the American statesman and inventor Benjamin Franklin.
    85. The first air brake invented by George Westinghouse in 1869 revolutionized the railroad industry.
    86. The Chinese abacus was developed about 5000 years ago.
    87. Charles Edward Taylor (May 24, 1868 – January 30, 1956) built the first aircraft engine that provided the power to achieve the powered, sustained, and controlled flight of an airplane flying by Orville and Wilbur Wright on December 17, 1903.
    88. Japan has so many earthquakes because it is located along the Pacific Ring of Fire, which is is an area where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean.
    89. In 1976, a magnitude 7.5 quake killed 255,000 people in Tangshan, China; in 2004, a 9.1 magnitude quake in Sumatra (and the resulting Tsunami) killed 227,898 in 14 countries; in 1920, a 7.8 earthquake killed 235,502 people in Haiyuan, China; in 1923, 142,000 people died after a 7.9 quake in Kanto, Japan; in 1908, 123,000 people were killed after a 7.1 quake in Messina, Italy; and in 1948, 110,000 people died after a 7.3 quake struck Ashgabat, Turkmenistan.
    90. North Dakota (US) never had an earthquake.
    91. About 46,000 square miles of arable land and around 1,000 square miles of Chinese land turn to desert annually due to climate change, fueling deadly, globe-circling dust storms, and practices such as forest clear-cutting.
    92. Atacama Desert in Chile is an extreme desert state, where no rain has ever been recorded in this region.
    93. When an active cell phone is pressed against the ear, the brain gets busier. The human brain is sensitive to the electromagnetic radiation that is emitted from cell phones; however, the radiation emitted by a cell phone is not radioactive. Scientists don't know yet whether cell phones are bad for the brain.
    94. Discovery, which made its debut on August 30, 1984, ended its career on March 9, 2011 as the world's most flown spaceship, returning from orbit for the last time and taking off in a new direction as a museum piece. This spaceship flew 39 missions, including flying 13 times to the space station more than any other craft, covering 148 million miles. It orbited Earth 5,830 times and spent 365 days in space.
    95. About 10.4 percent of the world's land surface (or 6,020,000 square miles) is covered with ice in the form of ice sheets, ice caps, or glaciers.
    96. About one-third of Earth’s land surface is partially or totally desert.
    98. The ice that covers Antarctica is 15,700 feet ( 4,785 meters) in depth at its thickest point. Its average thickness is 7,100 feet (2,164 meters).
    99. Of the 850 different species of tree in the U.S., the oldest species is the bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva), which grows in the deserts of Nevada and South California. The potential life span of these pines is estimated to be 5,500 years.
    100. An old, still healthy oak tree is estimated to have approximately 250,000 leaves.
    101. The microwave was invented after a researcher walked by a radar tube and a chocolate bar melted in his pocket.
    102. Supercomputers, which was originally designed by Seymour Cray at Control Data Corporation (CDC) in 1960s, are used for highly calculation-intensive tasks such as problems involving weather forecasting, climate research, molecular modeling and physical simulations and quantum physics. Today the Tianhe-1A supercomputer located in China has been the fastest in the world.
    103. The highest recorded train speed is 320.2 mph by the TGV train in France.
    104. Only 31 percent of U.S. bachelor's degrees are in science and technology, compared with 63 percent in Japan.
    105. Marie Curie, the Nobel prize winning scientist who discovered radium, died of radiation poisoning. She was the first person honored with two Nobel Prizes (in physics and chemistry), and was the first woman to serve as professor at the University of Paris.
    106. The water on the earth occupies 71 percent of the planet, but only 1 percent of this water is drinkable.
    107. It takes 8 minutes and 12 seconds for sunlight to reach the Earth.
    108. Florida's beaches lose 20 million cubic yards of sand annually.
    109. One 75-watt bulb gives more light than three 25-watt bulbs.
    110. The speed of a typical raindrop is 17 miles per hour.
    111. Radio waves travel at 186,000 miles per second, and sound waves saunter at 700 miles per hour.
    112. HP, Dell, Acer and Apple are top PC sellers in the U.S.; and while other three vendors gained their shares, HP continues falling.
    113. The revolver was invented by inventor Samuel Colt. It was patented in 1836.
    114. In 2009, the US Federal government awarded Lockheed Martin, Boeing, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon and General Dynamics the contracts with a value of $30.9B, $20B, $17.5B and $15.3 and $12.7B, respectively.
    115. eBay acquired Skype for approximately $2.6 billion on September 12, 2005. Skype had about 54 million members in 225 countries and territories and added around 150,000 new users each day at that time.
    116. on Jan 13, 2000 Bill Gates resigned as the CEO of his own company, Microsoft, to dedicate himself to the development of software with the new title, Software Architect; Steve Ballmer took over the helm.
    117. Linus Benedict Torvalds is the creator and, for a long time, principal developer, of the Linux kernel; which became the kernel for operating systems such as the Linux operating system, Android, and Chrome OS. While attending the University of Helsinki, Linus Torvalds released Linux, (a UNIX like operating system (OS) based on POSIX which is distributed with free source code), version 0.02 on October 5, 1991.

    Science & Technology Documentary
    1. The History of the Earth and Life.
    2. The Mind Bending Story of Quantum Physics.
    3. Quantum Biology Explains Mysteries.
    4. Quantum Biology: The Hidden Nature of Nature.
    5. Quantum Computers.
    6. Nanotechnology, Quantum Computers and Cyborg Anthropology.
    7. Mysteries of the Mathematical Universe.
    8. The Great Math Mystery.
    9. The Discovery That Transformed Pi.
    10. The Cosmic Scale.
    11. Our Planet - High Seas.
    12. The Secret Behind 5G Technology.
    13. The Internet of Things.
    14. Machine Learning: Living in the Age of AI.
    15. Advanced Military Drone Technology.
    16. The Drone Age.
    17. Drones UAV | Spies That Fly | Military.
    18. Best Military Drones Technology.
    19. Flight of the Future - Science Fiction or Reality.
    20. Archeology – Exploring the Past with Modern Technology .
    21. In Search Of History - Ancient Inventions.
    22. Puzzling Ancient Ruins.
    23. NASA’s Giant Leaps, Past and Future.
    24. Future Aircraft (NASA).
    25. Orbit - A Journey Around Earth in Real Time.
    26. Deep Field - The Impossible Magnitude of our Universe.
    27. Pluto - New Horizons.
    28. Kepler 186F - Life After Earth.
    29. A Science Odyssey: Mysteries of the Universe.
    30. Journey to the Moon.
    31. Mars - The New Evidence.
    32. The Unkown Planet: Planet X/Nibiru.
    33. Black Hole Firewalls.
    34. Faces of Earth - Shaping the Planet.
    35. Black Holes and the Fundamental Laws of Physics.
    36. Future Space Travel Technologies.
    37. The Most Dangerous Deepest Place On Earth.
    38. Dark Energy - The Mystery Universe.
    39. The Dark Side of the Universe.
    40. Creatures of the Deep Ocean.
    41. Deep Sea Exploration.
    42. Searching for Sea Monsters.
    43. The History of Computers, Programming, and Coding.
    44. The Illusion of Time.
    45. Future Jet Fighters.
    46. Area 51 - The CIAs Secret Files.
    47. Bionics, Transhumanism, and the End of Evolution.
    48. Advanced Extraterrestrial Technology.
    49. Exceptional Motorbike Factory.
    50. Fuel Cells.
    51. Finding Life Beyond Earth.
    52. Cracking the Code of Life
    53. Beautiful Minds: The Enigma of Genius.
    54. Secret Life of Isaac Newton.
    55. Life of Leonardo DaVinci.
    56. Life of Albert Einstein.
    57. Albert Einstein - How I See The World.
    58. Quest for the Lost City (Mayan).
    59. Can My Car Live Forever?
    60. Breaking Vegas - The True Story of the MIT Blackjack Team.
    61. Inventing The Future.
    62. Rise of Future Technology - Artificial Intelligence.
    63. Future Robotics Technology - New Mind Blow.
    64. The Rise of Artificial Intelligence,
    65. The Race to Harness Quantum Computing and A.I,
    66. DARPA's Weapons Technology.
    67. Robot Technology.
    68. Future American Robots Army.
    69. Is Anybody Out There? (Alien Life).
    70. Big, Bigger, Biggest Dam.
    71. The Internet Revolution and Digital Future Technology.
    72. Why Did The Egyptians Stop Building Pyramids?
    73. 5 Most Amazing Science Discoveries Made in 2019.
    74. 10 Future Technologies That Will Change the World.
    75. 10 Top Medical Innovations in 2019
    76. 100% Air Fighter Planes.
    1. An Introduction to Quantum Computing, Without the Physics
    2. Quantum Computing 40 Years Later
    3. Solid State Physics Part II - Mathematical Tripos
    4. Solid State Physics Part II - Optical Properties of Solids
    5. Introduction to Solid State Physics by Frank Grohmann
    6. Introduction to Solid State Physics by Charles Kittel
    7. Semiconductor Physics and Devices - Basic Principles
    8. Light and Optics - Principles and Practices
    9. Semiconductor Materials: An Introduction to Basic Principles
    10. Charge Transport in Two-Dimensional Materials and Their Electronic Applications (Dissertation)
    11. Fundamentals of Semiconductors
    12. A History of the World Semiconductor Industry
    13. Advanced Materials Innovation: Managing Global Technology in the 21st Century
    14. The Principles of Good Data Management
    15. Unsolved Problems in Number Theory
    16. Understanding Digital Electronics
    17. Fundamentals in Chemical Physics
    18. Simulation, Modeling and Analysis
    19. Beyond Einstein: From the Big Bang to Black Holes
    20. A Christian Physicist Examines the Big Bang Theory
    21. The Big-Bang Theory: Construction, Evolution and Status
    22. The Impact of Science on Society
    23. A Scientific Roadmap for Antibiotic Discovery
    24. Unintended Consequences
    25. Statistics for Machine Learning
    26. Introduction to Food Engineering
    27. Mathematical Methods for Physics and Engineering
    28. Waste Water Engineering
    29. Rocks, Minerals & Gemstones
    30. A History of Control Engineering, 1930-1955
    31. The Oxford Handbook of Engineering and Technology in the Classical World
    32. Analysis for Science, Engineering and Beyond: The Tribute
    33. Drilling Engineering
    34. Engineering Drawing and Graphics + Autocad
    35. Metabolic Engineering: Principles and Methodologies
    36. Story Engineering
    37. The Manual of Bridge Engineering
    38. Academic Science/Engineering: Scientists and Engineers
    39. Requirements Engineering: Foundation for Software Quality
    40. Chaos Engineering
    41. Invention of Integrated Circuits: Untold Important Facts
    42. Great Inventions that Changed the World
    43. Inventors and Inventions
    44. Discoveries and Inventions of the Nineteenth Century
    45. Concise History of Science & Invention: An Illustrated Time Line
    46. The Invention of Air: A Story Of Science, Faith, Revolution, ...
    47. The International Handbook on Innovation
    48. Occultism and the Emergence of Atomic Theory
    49. Landmarks in the History of Science: Great Scientific
    50. March of the Machines: The Breakthrough in Artificial
    51. Breverton's Encyclopedia of Inventions: A Compendium of ...
    52. Electronic Inventions and Discoveries
    53. Learn from the Past, Create the Future: Inventions and Patents
    54. Suppressed Inventions
    55. The Invention of Science: A New History of the Scientific ...
    56. Cycles of Invention and Discovery
    57. Black Pioneers of Science and Invention
    58. Scientific and Technological Thinking
    59. Ancient Inventions
    60. The Lagoon: How Aristotle Invented Science
    61. Pioneers in Scientific Discoveries
    62. Groundbreaking Scientific Experiments, Inventions, and ...
    63. Skunk Works: A Personal Memoir of My Years of Lockheed
    64. Archangel: CIA's Supersonic A-12 Reconnaissance Aircraft
    65. Crystal Fire: The Invention of the Transistor and the Birth
    66. Progress and Values in the Humanities: Comparing Culture and ...
    67. The One Device: The Secret History of the iPhone
    68. How to Fly a Horse: The Secret History of Creation, ...
    69. Agile Product Development: How to Design Innovative Products
    70. How I Killed Pluto and Why It Had It Coming
    71. The Food Explorer: The True Adventures of the Globe-Trotting ...
    72. Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (2019)
    73. Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea (1917)
    74. All About Inventions and Discoveries: The Romance of Modern
    75. Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia
    76. The Making of Modern Science: Science, Technology, Medicine
    77. The Social Construction of Technological Systems
    78. What Technology Wants
    79. DoD Reliability Availability and Maintainability (RAM) Guide
    80. The Cellphone
    81. The Economic Dynamics of Fuel Cell Technologies
    82. Handbook of Nanoscience, Engineering, and Technology
    83. 50+ Free Biology Books
    84. 50 Years of Solar System Exploration
    85. 100 Greatest Science Inventions of All Time
    86. 100 Most Influential Scientists of All Time
    87. 100 Inventions That Made History: Brilliant Breakthroughs ...
    88. 1000 Inventions and Discoveries

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    ▷ Sciences - Natural Sciences
    1. Natural Sciences
    2. The Realm of Natural Science Explained
    3. The Most Interesting Science News Articles of the Week
    4. Exploration and Discovery in Science and Engineering
    5. Functional-Anatomic Fractionation of the Brain's Default Network: Neuron
    6. Adenosine and Brain Function
    7. Other Minds in the Brain: A Functional Imaging Study of “Theory of Mind” in Story Comprehension
    8. Neuromodulation and Neuroprotective Effects of Chlorogenic Acids in Excitatory Synapses of Mouse Hippocampal Slices
    9. Drinking Coffee Enhances Neurocognitive Function by Reorganizing Brain Functional Connectivity
    10. Caffeine, Fatigue, and Cognition
    11. Artificial Synapses Based on Josephson Junctions With Fe Nanoclusters in the Amorphous Ge Barrier
    12. The Biggest Myths of the Teenage Brain
    13. Body and Brain.
    14. Nuclear Energy - An Overview
    15. Nuclear Energy: Basics, Present, Future
    16. The Future of Nuclear Power |
    17. Nuclear Energy: the Good, the Bad, and the Debatable
    18. Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel
    19. Reactors: Modern-Day Alchemy - Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy
    20. Fast Reactor Technology - Reactors Designed/Built by Argonne National Laboratory
    21. Nuclear Power Reactors in the World
    22. Nuclear Power: Outlook for New U.S. Reactors
    23. Atomic Age Began 75 Years Ago with the First Controlled Nuclear Chain Reaction
    24. The Physics of Nuclear Weapons | Stanford
    25. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons | DoD
    26. Effects of Nuclear Weapons | Princeton
    27. Radioactive Heaven and Earth
    28. Low-Yield Earth-Penetrating Nuclear Weapons
    29. The Effects of Nuclear War
    30. United States Nuclear Tests July 1945 through September 1992.
    31. The Manhattan Project
    32. The Manhattan Project | OSTI
    33. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb
    34. The Race to Build the Atomic Bomb
    35. Atomic Bomb
    36. Chemical Bond with Atoms
    37. Nuclear Fusion |
    38. Principles of Fusion Energy
    39. Magnetic Fusion Energy | MIT
    40. The Fusion Driven Rocket | NASA
    41. Fusion Reactors: The Ultimate Nuclear Power Plant | MIT
    42. Helping to Make Nuclear Fusion a Reality | MIT
    43. The Physics of Fusion Power
    44. Focus On - Fusion Energy
    45. Fusion Experiment Breaks Record, Blasts out 10 Quadrillion Watts of Power
    46. Lithium, a Path to Make Fusion Energy Affordable
    47. Cold Fusion: A Case Study for Scientific Behavior
    48. Superconductor Technology for Smaller, Sooner Fusion | MIT
    49. Critical Materials Rare Earths Supply Chain: A Situational White Paper
    50. Provenance and Traceability of Rare Earth Products
    51. A Review of Rare Earth Mineral Processing Technology
    52. Critical Materials for the Energy Transition: Rare Earth Elements
    53. Rare-Earth Elements
    54. Rare Earth Element | Wikipedia.
    55. Rare Earth Element - An Overview
    56. Rare Earth Elements in the Soil Environment.
    57. Rare Earth Elements (Briefing Note)
    58. Rare Earth Elements (Metals)
    59. Rare Earth's Statistics and Information | USGS.
    60. Rare Earth Materials in the Defense Supply
    61. Rare Earth Magnets - Explanation, Types, Applications, and FAQs
    62. The Rare Earth Elements Industry in Canada
    63. The Rarest Elements on the Periodic Table
    64. Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earth
    65. The Beginner's Guide to Earthing
    66. Technical Feasibility of Selectively Separating Rare Earth Elements by Vapor Phase Extraction and Condensation
    67. Structural State of Rare Earth Elements in Eudialyte-Group Minerals
    68. An Overview of Rare Earth Elements and Related Issues for Congress
    69. New Sources Sought for Rare Earth Elements, to Stop Reliance on China
    70. List of Sciences Ologies
    71. Accuracy and Precision of Laboratory Glassware: Determining the Density of Water
    72. Chlorella - The Most Exciting Nutritional Discovery on Planet Earth
    73. The Biomass Distribution on Earth
    74. An Assessment of the Global Impact of 21st Century Land Use Change on Soil Erosion | Nature Communications
    75. Global Patterns in Coronavirus Diversity - Virus Evolution | Oxford Academic
    76. Praise for Earthing
    77. The Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras
    78. This Dynamic Earth: The Story of Plate Tectonics
    79. The Oldest Place on Earth
    80. The Day the Dinosaurs Died
    81. Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons
    82. The Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth
    83. Early Life on Land and the First Terrestrial Ecosystems
    84. As They Gather at U.N., World Leaders Face Furious Push to Act Quickly on Climate Change
    85. Climate Change: Nationally Determined Contributions Under the Paris
    86. Humans Have Pushed the Climate into ‘Unprecedented’ Territory, Landmark U.N. Report Finds
    87. Potential Impacts of Climate Change
    88. Measuring the Life-Saving Effects of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the U.S.
    89. Estimating a Social Cost of Carbon for Global Energy Consumption Climate Impact Lab
    90. Scientists Confirm that East Antarctica’s Biggest Glacier Is Melting from Below
    91. The Invisible Threat: Rising Temperatures Mean Insects Can Carry Viruses to Wider Areas
    92. The Neuroscience of Trust.
    93. Understanding the Brain: The Birth of a Learning Science.
    94. Neuroscience and Learning through Play: A Review of the Evidence.
    95. Energy: A Scientific Definition .
    96. Physics of Energy.
    97. Energy: An Introduction.
    98. Introduction to Work, Energy, and Energy Resources.
    99. Sources of Energy.
    100. The Cyclic Theory of the Universe
    101. Observational Evidence for the Big Bang
    102. About the Theory of the Big Bang
    103. Alternatives to the Big Bang Theory (Infographic)
    104. The Big Bang
    105. The Big Bang | NASA
    106. The Big Bang Theory (BBT)
    107. The Big Bang Theory
    108. The Big Bang Theory Explained
    109. The Big Bang Theory of the Early Universe
    110. The Big Bang, Stephen Hawking, and God
    111. Big Bang | Wikipedia
    112. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
    113. Big Bang? A Critical Review
    114. Big Bang Cosmology Fundamentals
    115. Misconceptions About the Big Bang
    116. Evidence for the Big Bang
    117. Georges Lemaitre: Father of the Big Bang
    118. Creation ex Nihilo and the Big Bang
    119. A Different Approach for Big Bang Singularity
    120. Thomas Aquinas and Big Bang Cosmology
    121. Theology and the Big Bang
    122. Cosmologists Close in on Logical Laws for the Big Bang
    123. Have We Solved the Black Hole Information Paradox?
    124. Curtains Down for the Black Hole Firewall Paradox.
    125. Wormholes Untangle a Black Hole Paradox.
    126. Beyond Einstein: From the Big Bang to Black Holes.
    127. Particle Creation by Black Holes.
    128. Introduction to the Theory of Black Holes.
    129. A Black Hole Mystery Wrapped in a Firewall Paradox.
    130. Black Hole Firewalls Confound Theoretical Physicists.
    131. Black Holes & The Theory of Relativity.
    132. Black Holes, Information & String Theory.
    133. Black Hole Theory.
    134. Black Holes.
    135. Black Holes | European Southern Observatory.
    136. The Periodic Table: It's More than Just Chemistry and Physics.
    137. A Periodic Table of the Elements at Los Alamos National Laboratory
    138. The Control of Quality in the Manufacture of Paint (a Thesis at MIT)
    139. Rapid and Accurate Species Identification for Ecological Studies and Monitoring Using CRISPR-based SHERLOCK | MIT
    140. Corrosion Inhibitors – Principles, Mechanisms and Applications
    141. Corrosion Protection of Metals
    142. Corrosion Protection of Steel Structures
    143. Handbook for Corrosion Protection
    144. Corrosion and Corrosion Protection
    145. Modeling Corrosion and Corrosion Protection
    146. Corrosion Protection - An Overview
    147. Guide to Corrosion Protection
    148. Corrosion Protection
    149. Transforming the World Through Science | NSF
    150. Science, Evolution and Creationism
    151. Introduction to Biometric Technologies and Applications
    152. A Simplified Guide to Fingerprint Analysis
    153. Fingerprint Matching
    154. The Fingerprint Sourcebook
    155. Fingerprint Recognition
    156. Fingerprint Identification - Feature Extraction, Matching, and Database Search
    157. The Convergence of the Life Sciences, Physical ...
    158. Mathematics & Physics: An Innermost Relationship
    159. Interrelations Between Mathematics and Physics
    160. The Relation Between Mathematics and Physics
    161. The Role of Mathematics in Physics: Building Knowledge and Describing the Empirical World
    162. Sustaining Discovery in Biological and Medical Sciences
    163. Healthcare and Life Sciences Predictions for 2020
    164. Turning Discovery into Health | NIH
    165. The Most Important Application of Science | NIH
    166. Introduction to Health Technology Assessment
    167. Discovery Medicine: Therapy, Diagnosis, Life Sciences, and ...
    168. Biopharmaceutical Research & Development
    169. Pharma: Challenging Business Models Which Path Will You Take?
    170. The Impact of Science on Society
    171. IBM Life Sciences Solutions: Turning Data into Discovery with DiscoveryLink
    172. The Importance of Engineering and Physical Sciences
    173. The AI Revolution in Scientific Research
    174. Facts About Coal and Minerals
    175. Common Uses for Various Metals and Minerals
    176. Tin, Tantalum, Tungsten, Gold, and Cobalt Smelters and Refiners in Apple’s Products
    177. Uses of Gold in Industry, Medicine, Computers, Electronics ...
    178. Analyzing Precious Metals for Content & Purity
    179. Diamonds vs. Precious Metals
    180. Inventions and Science: Ideas and Inventors
    181. Different Types of Innovation: Why One Size Doesn't Fit All
    182. Stretchy Artificial 'Skin' Could Give Robots a Sense of Touch.
    183. Tiny, Lens-Free Camera Could Hide in Clothes, Glasses.
    184. More Accurate Breast Cancer Diagnoses With Artificial Intelligence.
    185. Artificial Intelligence Could Yield More Accurate Breast Cancer Diagnoses.
    186. 'Atomic Fingerprinting' Tech Could End Counterfeit Goods
    187. Work, Power, Kinetic Energy
    188. Differences Between Heat and Thermal Energy
    189. Hybrid Driving-Flying Robots Could Go Beyond the Flying Car
    190. Types of Solar and Lunar Eclipses - Time and Date.
    191. Types of Eclipse - Definition of an Eclipse.
    192. Eclipses of the Sun & Moon.
    193. Understanding Astronomy: The Moon and Eclipses.
    194. Earth's Final Total Solar Eclipse Will Happen in Less Than a Billion Years.
    195. Advanced Vision Algorithm Helps Robots Learn to See in 3D.
    196. Artificial Light from Electronics Worsens Sleep.
    197. Transparent Touchpad Works Even When It's Bent and Stretched
    198. Laser-Printed Nanotech Makes Colors That Never Fade
    199. Scientists Can Now Create Glass Figurines with a 3D Printer
    200. Restoring a Military Plane from the 1950s (Photos)
    201. New 3D Display Uses Bubbles to Project Images
    202. Should We Fear the Rise of Intelligent Robots?.
    203. Earth to Warm 2 Degrees by the End of This Century.
    204. Solid State Physics
    205. A Brief Review of Elementary Quantum Chemistry
    206. Quantum Chemistry - An Overview
    207. Fundamentals of Quantum Chemistry
    208. Symmetric and Antisymmetric Kernels for Machine Learning Problems in Quantum Physics and Chemistry
    209. Quantum Physics.
    210. Quantum Physics Notes.
    211. Notes on Quantum Mechanics
    212. Introduction to Quantum Algorithms for Physics and Chemistry
    213. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics | Harvard
    214. Lecture Notes: Introductory Quantum Chemistry | Yale
    215. Lecture Notes on Quantum Mechanics | Stanford
    216. Lecture Notes: Physical Chemistry and Chemistry & Exams | MIT
    217. Lecture Notes on Quantum Mechanics
    218. An Introduction to Quantum Chemistry
    219. The Mathematics of Quantum Mechanics
    220. Quantum Physics in Neuroscience and Psychology: A Neurophysical Model of Mind/Brain Interaction
    221. Basic Principle of Quantum Chemistry
    222. The Basics of Quantum Mechanics
    223. Quantum Systems in Chemistry and Physics - Basic Problems and Model Systems
    224. The Physics of Quantum Mechanics
    225. Introduction to Quantum Chemistry
    226. Handbook of Molecular Physics and Quantum Chemistry
    227. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots: An Undergraduate Physics Laboratory
    228. Quantum Computing Basics and Concepts
    229. Physics for Beginners: A Novice's Guide to the Mysteries of the Universe
    230. Chinese Scientists Just Set the Record for the Farthest Quantum Teleportation.
    231. Medical Advancements Due to Technology.
    232. Promoting Access to Medical Technologies and Innovation.
    233. Connected Health How Digital Technology Is Transforming.
    234. The Future of Technology in Health and Health Care.
    235. Pharmaceutical Science and Technology.
    236. Artificial Intelligence in Medicine and Healthcare.
    237. A Sensor to Detect Human Body Conditions in Real-time.
    238. In the Future, Will People Have Enough Water to Live?.
    239. Electric Vehicle Adoption Improves Air Quality and Climate Outlook
    240. 'Beam of Invisibility' Could Hide Objects Using Light
    241. Phantom Planets.
    242. Chemists Find a New Tool for Understanding Enzymes—Google
    243. Scientists Find Evidence of ‘Orphan’ Gamma-Ray Bursts.
    244. A Glimpse Into Future Oceans
    245. Unsurvivable Heatwaves Could Strike Heart of China by End of Century.
    246. Introduction - The Physics of the Universe.
    247. Multiphysics Papers and Presentations
    248. MIT Chemists Discover Unexpected Enzyme Structure.
    249. Black Holes Only Contain Small Percentage of the Universe’s Dark Matter.
    250. Lithium-ion Battery Data Sheet
    251. Application for Lithium-ion Battery
    252. National Blueprint for Lithium Batteries 2021-2030
    253. Lithium-Ion Batteries Hazard and Use Assessment
    254. Battery Basics, Cell Chemistry, and Cell Design
    255. New Materials for and Challenges in Lithium Ion Battery Research
    256. Battery 2030 Roadmap
    257. Robot 'Telepathy' Could Make Self-Driving Cars Safer
    258. Scientists Identify Brain-Signaling Molecule that Triggers Fat Burning.
    259. Juno to Remain in Current Orbit at Jupiter.
    260. Geology of Ceres and Origin of Organics.
    261. Saturn's Icy Moon Enceladus, a Possible Home for Life, Shines in Photo.
    262. Enceladus: Saturn's Tiny, Shiny Moon.
    263. Exploding Stars in the Atomic Nucleus.
    264. Icy Saturn Moon Pumps Out 15.8 Gigawatts of Heat Power.
    265. Saturn Moon Riddled with Gushing Geysers, New Images Reveal.
    266. Cassini Saturn Probe Gets 7-Year Life Extension.
    267. Pentagon Bot Battle Shows How Computers Can Fix Their Own Flaws.
    268. Chinese Mathematics.
    269. The Polymerase Chain Reaction
    270. Genetically Modified Organisms
    271. The Pros and Cons of Genetic Testing: Myths and Facts
    272. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
    273. The Discovery of DNA.
    274. The Innovator's DNA
    275. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) - An Overview.
    276. DNA Computing
    277. Role of Recombinant DNA Technology to Improve Life
    278. Breakthrough DNA Editor Born of Bacteria
    279. A Pilot Survey on the Licensing of DNA Inventions
    280. Case Study: DNA.
    281. Advanced Gene Editing: CRISPR-Cas9
    282. The Structures of DNA and RNA.
    283. Best DNA Test for Ancestry (2020).
    284. The False Promise of DNA Testing.
    285. In Search of the Best DNA Test: 5 DNA Tests & 5 Different Results | Which DNA Test is the Most Accurate?.
    286. DNA's Double Helix.
    287. Discovery of the DNA Double-Helix vis-a-vis Publication.
    288. Model, Theory and Evidence in the Discovery of the DNA.
    289. DNA Patenting: Implications for Public Health Research
    290. Essentials of Genetics.
    291. The Clean Energy Megaprojects Powering Africa.
    292. Bristol Scientists Use Urine to Charge Mobile Phone.
    293. Making Electricity from Urine.
    294. Cancer-Fighting Army? Magnetic Robot Swarms Could Combat Disease
    295. Biologists Identify New Targets for Cancer Vaccines | MIT
    296. The Incidence of Cancer, Triggered by the COVID-19 “Vaccine”
    297. Scientists Grow Teeth Out of Urine.
    298. Frictional Coefficient under Banana Skin
    299. An Injectable Oxygen Particle That Lets You Survive Without Breathing.
    300. Unfavorable Perceived Neighborhood Environment Associates with Less Routine Healthcare Utilization: Data from the Dallas Heart Study
    301. Epic Gravitational Wave Detection: How Scientists Did It.
    302. Earthquakes Turn Water into Gold.
    303. Particle Filters and Their Applications
    304. Physical Geography
    305. Physical Geography: The Basics
    306. National Geographic Geography Handbook
    307. Geography Facts That Will Blow Your Mind
    308. Progress in Physical Geography
    309. Physical Geography, Isolation by Distance and Environmental Variables Shape Genomic Variation of Wild Barley
    310. Biology Articles
    311. Biology News | SciTechDaily
    312. Biology News - Evolution, Cell theory, Gene theory, Microbiology, Biotechnology |
    313. Scientific Articles & Journal
    314. Bio-Based Chemicals (2020)
    315. Bio-Based Chemicals Overview
    316. Background of Biofuels and Bio-Based Chemicals
    317. Biochemistry: From Atoms to Molecules to Cells
    318. Biotechnology Solutions for Renewable Specialty Chemicals & Food Ingredients
    319. Future of the Chemical Sciences
    320. List of Chemical Elements
    321. Periodic Table of Chemical Elements
    322. A Periodic Table of the Elements | Los Alamos National Laboratory
    323. Periodic Table of the Elements in Pictures
    324. Periodic Table of Elements with Chemical Group Block
    325. The Impact of Chemicals, Waste and Pollution on Human Health
    326. Chemical Pollution of the Environment: Past, Present and Future
    327. Chemical Pollution: A Growing Peril and Potential Catastrophic Risk to Humanity
    328. Toward a Global Understanding of Chemical Pollution: A First Comprehensive Analysis of National and Regional Chemical Inventories
    329. Environmental Pollution and Its Control
    330. Pollution and Health: A Progress Update | Lancet
    331. Agrochemicals, Environment, and Human Health
    332. Anthropocene | Wikipedia
    333. Inside the Anthropo-Populo-Consumo-Capitalocene
    334. Are We Now Living in the Anthropocene?
    335. Diachronous Beginnings of the Anthropocene
    336. The Anthropocene as an Event, Not an Epoch
    337. Anthropocene: The Journey to a New Geological Epoch
    338. Recarbonizing Global Soils for Sustainable Development
    339. New Evidence Suggests Human Beings Are a Geological Force of Nature
    340. Ecological Selectivity of the Emerging Mass Extinction in the Oceans
    341. Gravitational Waves Detected, Confirming Einstein’s Theory.
    342. Scientists Confirm Einstein’s Theory of Gravitational Waves.
    343. A Century Ago, Einstein’s Theory of Relativity Changed Everything.
    344. Ninth Planet - Pluto Facts.
    345. Dwarf Planet Pluto.
    346. NASA's New Horizons Mission to Pluto.
    347. Reflections on the Legacy of a Legend.
    348. Should Large Moons Be Called 'Satellite Planets'?
    349. The Really Big Earthquake That Will Devastate the Pacific Northwest - The Question Is When.
    350. Tiny, Lens-Free Camera Could Hide in Clothes, Glasses
    351. No More Glare : 'Moth Eye' Smartphone Coating Doesn't Reflect Sunlight
    352. Work Begins on Brain Stimulator to Correct Memory.
    353. Nobel for Brain’s Location Code.
    354. Military Funds Brain-Computer Interfaces to Control Feelings.
    355. Amazing Discoveries.
    356. Revealed: Cambodia's Vast Medieval Cities Hidden Beneath the Jungle
    357. Cambodia's Vast Lost City : World's Greatest Pre-industrial Site Unearthed
    358. Robotic Arm Turns Your Digital Doodles into Good Old-Fashioned Sketches
    359. Airborne Laser Scanning as a Method for Exploring Long-term Socio-ecological Dynamics in Cambodia
    360. Cheap, Scratch-Resistant Displays.
    361. Inventions Enable Diving to New Depths.
    362. Engineers Build First Nonreciprocal Acoustic Circulator : A One-way Sound Device.
    363. Supervolcano Eruption Mystery Solved.
    364. Questions About Supervolcanoes.
    365. Triple Star System 'Can Reveal Secrets of Gravity'.
    366. New-Found Old Galaxies Upsetting Astronomers’ Long-Held Theories on the Big Bang.
    367. Active Galaxies and Quasars: A Monster in the Middle.
    368. Nobel Prize for 2 ‘God particle’ Theorists; 3 Others Left Out.
    369. Stanford Researchers Develop First Computer Using Only Carbon Nanotube Transistors.
    370. Building a Better You? The Era of Trans-Human Technology (Op-Ed).
    371. The Oxcart Story.
    372. Universe as an Infant: Fatter Than Expected and Kind of Lumpy.
    373. An Understanding of Cosmology.
    374. Fallen Stars: A Gallery of Famous Meteorites
    375. Mapping the Early Universe.
    376. From the Dark Universe to Graphene.
    377. An Understanding of Universe.
    378. Misconceptions About the Big Bang
    379. Area 51 - It Does Exist!.
    380. Earth Had Oxygen-Rich Atmosphere Much Earlier Than Previously Thought, New Study Shows.
    381. Inflatable Antennae Could Give CubeSats Greater Reach: Design Inflates With Powder That Turns Into Gas.
    382. Einstein's Theory of Relativity in Real Life.
    383. Universe May Be on the Brink of Collapse (on the Cosmological Timescale).
    384. The Most Popular Science Talks.
    385. Methods in Human Computer Interaction/Quantitative
    386. Study: The Right Bacteria Might Help Fight Obesity.
    387. Age of Great Inventions and People
    388. Growth and Transformation: The United States in the Gilded Age.
    389. The Age of Edison: Electric Light and the Invention of Modern America.
    390. Mathematician's Century-Old Secrets Unlocked.
    391. New NASA Spacecraft to Investigate Moon Mystery.
    392. Looking at the Past Through the Lens of Science & Technology.
    393. Inventors and Inventions from the 1700's - The Eighteenth Century
    394. Scientists in Hong Kong Map Initial Anti-Aging Formula.
    395. New Opportunities Found for Waste Heat.
    396. Scientists Report Faster Warming in Antarctica.
    397. The Next Page: From 'Kodak Moments' to the Instagram Feed.
    398. Understanding of Higgs Boson. - Higgs Found
    399. Millions Expected to Go Dark for Saturday Night’s Earth Hour.
    400. The Mighty Mathematician You've Never Heard Of.
    401. Noise Pollution Is Changing Forests.
    402. Galileo Galilei: The Falling Bodies Experiment.
    403. Celebrating Einstein Through 100 Years of General Relativity
    404. Smallest Planet Yields Big Surprises.
    405. The Solar System.
    406. The Trouble With Data that Outpaces a Theory.
    407. Disappearing Snow Increases Risk of Collapsing Ice Shelves in Antarctica.
    408. New Type of Alien Planet Is a Steamy 'Waterworld'.
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    413. Mars Curiosity: Facts and Information.
    414. Human Cause of Global Warming Is Near Certainty, UN Reports.
    415. Numbers Warn of Looming Collapses.
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    417. Researchers Build Hard Drive of Future With Lasers.
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    421. NASA: Green Light for Green Flight
    422. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook
    423. NASA Kick-starting Lunar Science
    424. Innovation in Agriculture
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    428. Subsurface Oceans and Deep Interiors of Medium-sized Outer Planet Satellites and Large Trans-Neptunian Objects.
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    438. Cocktail Party Physics - Physics With a Twist
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    441. Tallest Mountain to Deepest Ocean Trench
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    443. The Top Science Mysteries.
    444. Tomorrow’s World: A Guide to the Next 150 Years.
    445. DNA Reveals the Origins of Modern Europeans.
    446. Computer Models Show What Exactly Would Happen To Earth After A Nuclear War.
    447. Commanding Robots on Mars.
    448. Space Rock Sheds Light on Mysterious Mineral on Earth.
    449. Software Shows What Children Will Look Like In 70 Years, With Unprecedented Accuracy.
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    463. Accidental Discoveries in Science
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    ▷ Engineering & Technologies
    1. Introduction to Quantum Computers
    2. An Introduction to Quantum Computing
    3. Quantum Computing |
    4. An Undergraduate Course on Quantum Computing
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    13. Semiconductor Materials
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    19. Solid State Physics
    20. Solid State Physics - An Introduction
    21. Solid State Physics Course by E. Kogan
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    25. Body-Centered Cubic Problems |
    26. Tutorial: High-speed Low-power Neuromorphic Systems Based on Magnetic Josephson Junctions
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    29. Digital Transformation: A Literature Review and Guidelines for Future Research
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    37. A Comprehensive Review of Applications of Drone Technology in the Mining Industry
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    41. Advantages and Disadvantages of Drone Technology
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    46. Counter-Drone Systems
    47. Rise of Mini-Drones: Applications and Issues
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    49. Introduction to Drone Technology
    50. Future of Drones: Applications & Uses of Drone Technology
    51. Building a Drone from Scratch
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    54. Homeland Security: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Border Surveillance
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    57. Unmanned Aircraft Systems
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    62. Most Advanced Technology on Earth
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    66. Semiconductor Overview
    67. Development of Various Semiconductor Quantum Devices
    68. Development of Compound Semiconductor Devices — In Search of Immense Possibilities
    69. Semiconductor and Semiconductor Devices
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    72. Basics of Semiconductor Devices
    73. Introduction to Semiconductors
    74. Fundamentals of Semiconductors
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    82. Submarines & Deep Technology
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    87. British Submarines of WWII
    88. U.S. Pacific Submarines in World War II
    89. The Development of Ship Design and Ship Building
    90. USN Aircraft Carriers, Submarines and Amphibious Ships
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    92. Navy Next-Generation Attack Submarine (SSN[X]) Program
    93. Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships
    94. Italy Submarine Capabilities
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    99. Personal Locator Beacons – How They Work & the Best 4 to Get
    100. Best Personal Locator Beacon & Satellite Messengers
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    102. Beacon Types and Models
    103. Basics of Global Positioning System
    104. Global Positioning System Basics
    105. Setting up a GPS Unit and Basic GPS Mapping Techniques Manual
    106. GPS: A Graph Processing System
    107. Global Positioning System
    108. GPS: The Global Positioning System
    109. Global Positioning System
    110. Global Positioning System Surveying Techniques
    111. Fundamentals of Global Positioning System
    112. Basics of the Global Positioning System Technique: Observation Equations
    113. Global Positioning System (GPS) and its Applications
    114. Introduction to Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
    115. Introduction to Global Positioning System | ITU
    116. TCS Issued U.S. Patent for Assisted GPS Location of Handsets.
    117. Introduction to Global Positioning System Components and Operation.
    118. Principles of the Global Positioning System | MIT
    119. Principles of GPS
    120. Adafruit Ultimate GPS
    121. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)
    122. Satellite Systems
    123. The Year of the Satellite: 1957–1958 | NOAA
    124. An Overview of Major Satellite Systems
    125. Satellite Frequency Conversion Chart
    126. Satellite Frequency Bands: L, S, C, X, Ku, Ka-band
    127. FCC Online Table of Frequency Allocations
    128. An Overview of LEO Satellite Systems
    129. Introduction to the Satellite Industry
    130. Technical Challenges and Performance of Satellite Communications on-the-Move Systems
    131. A Practical Introductory Guide on Using Satellite Technology for Communications
    132. Technical Compatibility Challenges Between Fixed Satellite Service and 5G in C-band
    133. An Updated Comparison of Four Low Earth Orbit Satellite Constellation Systems to Provide Global Broadband
    134. On-Orbit Satellite Servicing Study
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    136. Satellite Telemetry, Tracking and Control Subsystems
    137. Satellite Orbits
    138. Satellite Network Design
    139. Satellite Communications
    140. Satellite Communication (Course Material)
    141. Basics of Satellite Communications
    142. Introduction to Satellite Communications Technology for NREN | NASA
    143. Satellite-Based Internet: A Tutorial
    144. Satellite Surveillance: Domestic Issues
    145. Security Technology
    146. State of Cybersecurity Report.
    147. The Cyber Security Body of Knowledge.
    148. Cyber Security Planning Guide | FCC
    149. Cybersecurity Best Practices Guide
    150. Cyber Security Planning Guide.
    151. Cybersecurity, Innovation and the Internet Economy.
    152. Cybersecurity: Threats, Challenges, Opportunities
    153. Cybersecurity Best Practices Guide
    154. Cyber Security Report
    155. Cyber Security Governance
    156. CISO Benchmark Report
    157. Risk Management Framework (RMF) Overview.
    158. Introduction to Security Cyberspace, Cybercrime and ...
    159. An Introduction to Cybersecurity.
    160. Elements of a Cybersecurity Plan.
    161. DoD Cybersecurity T&E Guidebook.
    162. The Definitive Cybersecurity Guide
    163. National Cyber Strategy
    164. Identity and Access Management Overview
    165. Build Your Identity and Access Management Strategy
    166. Intelligent IAM for Dummies
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    168. The Future of Identity and Access Management
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    171. Identity and Access Management | Oracle
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    173. Delivery Drone.
    174. Best Open Source Software.
    175. Open Source Software.
    176. Using Open Source Code | The Linux Foundation.
    177. Understanding Open Source and Free Software Licensing.
    178. The Cultural Significance of Free Software
    179. Using Open Source Code in Proprietary Software.
    180. America's Home for Open Source Projects |
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    182. Open Source | ImageJ.
    183. Code | IBM Developer.
    184. Low-Code and No-Code Development Platforms | Deloitte
    185. Low-Code vs. No-Code App Development | Microsoft Power Apps
    186. Low-Code and No-Code Development Platforms
    187. Difference Between Low-Code and No-Code Platform
    188. Stretchy Artificial 'Skin' Could Give Robots a Sense of Touch
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    192. DevOps Vs. DevSecOps – A New Approach to Development
    193. DevOps vs Agile: Key Differences, Head to Head Comparison
    194. DevSecOps vs. Agile Development
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    196. DoD Enterprise DevSecOps Reference Design
    197. Automotive System & Software Development Challenges: Part 1 & Part 2.
    198. Best Content Management Software
    199. Content Management Software Reviews
    200. List of Content Management Systems
    201. Content Management Systems Used by Government Agencies
    202. Checklist of Requirements for Federal Websites and Digital Services
    203. Customer Experience Toolkit
    204. Evolution of the Information Age: 1960 – 2040
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    206. Federal Data Strategy Framework
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    208. Emerging Trends in Data Architecture
    209. Introduction to Data Management
    210. Fundamentals of Data Management
    211. Functional Framework of Data Management
    212. The Difference Between Data Governance and IT Governance.
    213. The Role of Healthcare Data Governance in Big Data Analytics.
    214. An Overview of Data Management
    215. Data Management vs Data Governance: IT Practice That Supports Business Strategy.
    216. Data Governance vs. Data Architecture
    217. Data Governance Framework.
    218. Data Governance Overview: Best Practices and Tools.
    219. Data vs. Information
    220. Data and Information: Differences, Meaning, Types and Examples
    221. Data Structures and Algorithms
    222. Data Integration Solutions
    223. Data Integration: Tools, Techniques, and Key Concepts
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    225. Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithms
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    241. Introduction to Modeling and Simulation
    242. Modeling and Analysis of Discrete Event Simulations
    243. Modeling and Simulation
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    245. Modeling and Simulation: Introduction
    246. Modeling, Simulation and Systems Engineering
    247. Modeling and Simulation Concepts
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    253. DARPA Hopes Automation Can Create the Perfect Hacker.
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    256. Color Night Vision Security Cameras: How They Work
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    258. Complete Guide to CCTV Lighting
    259. Camera Technology
    260. The Basics of Camera Technology
    261. Introduction to the Digital Video Camera
    262. The Fundamentals of Camera and Image Sensor Technology
    263. Information Technology Guide to Surveillance Video Surveillance
    264. The Impact of Video Evidence on Modern Policing
    265. IP Networking Impact on Video Surveillance
    266. Long Distance Video Camera Measurements of Structures
    267. Introduction to Information and Communication Technology in Education
    268. The Design and Implementation of a Wireless Video Surveillance System
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    276. Emerging Technologies
    277. List of Emerging Technologies
    278. Most Technologically Advanced Countries
    279. Hypothetical Technology
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    283. The Best Requirements Management Tools.
    284. Future Technology Predictions
    285. The Coolest Cars
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    288. IT Infrastructure: Hardware and Software
    289. Networking Fundamentals
    290. Basic Networking Concepts
    291. Introducing Basic Network Concepts
    292. Network Planning and Design
    293. Cabling: The Complete Guide to Network Wiring
    294. An Introduction to Computer Networks
    295. Introduction to Computer Networks and Data Communications
    296. Network Technology : Different Types, Advantages and Disadvantages
    297. Network Operating Systems
    298. System and Network Administration
    299. Principles of Network Management
    300. Network Infrastructure Standards
    301. Network Security Fundamentals
    302. Layering Network Security Through Segmentation
    303. Data Communication and Computer Networks.
    304. Fundamentals of Telecommunications
    305. Fundamentals of Telecommunications | Internet Society
    306. Introduction to Telecommunication Systems
    307. Telecommunications, the Internet, and Information System Architecture
    308. Telecommunications, the Internet, and Wireless Technology Telecommunications and Networking in Today’s Business World
    309. Telecommunications Fundamentals
    310. Telecommunications Basics
    311. Telecommunication Network Management
    312. Telecommunications Management Network
    313. Telecommunication Systems and Data Networks
    314. Telecommunication Switching Systems and Networks
    315. Telecommunication Technologies and Network Development
    316. Telecommunication System Engineering
    317. Telecommunication Systems and Technologies
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    325. Implementing a Zero Trust Architecture | NIST
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    449. 10 Top Low-code, No-code Development Platforms
    450. 10 Top DARPA Inventions
    451. 10 Scariest Bioweapons.
    452. 10 Incredible New Technologies That Have Changed the World
    453. 10 Breakthrough Technologies in 2021 | MIT Technology Review
    454. 10 Big Science and Technology Advances to Watch
    455. 10 Biggest Technological Advances Since 1844
    456. 10 Years of Top Tech Trends and How They've Changed the World
    457. 12 Most Advanced Countries in Electronics
    458. 12 Most Technologically Advanced Countries in the World
    459. 12 Countries and Regions with the Most Advanced Electronic Technology in the World
    460. 12 Weird But True Facts About Technology
    461. 13 Incredible Tech Inventions
    462. 13 Most Advanced Countries in Artificial Intelligence
    463. 14 Best Open-source Web Application Vulnerability Scanners
    464. 14 Tech Predictions for Our World in 2020.
    465. 15 Interesting Inventions in 2019.
    466. 15 Best Websites for Downloading Open Source Software.
    467. 18 Top New Technology Trends
    468. 19 Inventions That Have Changed the World in the Last Decade
    469. 20 Biggest Advances in Tech Over the Last 20 Years
    470. 20 Most Successful Technology Failures of all Time.
    471. 20 Cloud Computing Facts for 2015.
    472. 20+ Advanced Technologies.
    473. 22 Ideas About to Change Our World.
    474. 24 Free Open Source Applications of 2018.
    475. 24 Most Expensive Apple Products Ever Sold: Mac Pro, Apple ...
    476. 25 Technologies that Have Changed the World
    477. 25 Biggest IT Companies on the Fortune 500 in 2017.
    478. 25 Brilliant New Inventions.
    479. 25 Truly Useful Inventions.
    480. 25 Best Inventions of 2014.
    481. 30 Cool and Awesome Inventions.
    482. 30 Most Influential People in Tech.
    483. 30 Top Innovations of the Last 30 Years.
    484. 30 Most Amazing Inventions that Changed the World
    485. 30 Weird and Awesome Invention Ideas
    486. 34 Best Free Open Source Creative Tools.
    487. 35 Visionaries/Innovators Under 35 in 2014.
    488. 36 Fascinating Facts About Cloud Computing.
    489. 40 Famous Inventors.
    490. 40 Things That Didn't Exist 40 Years Ago - Inventions from the 80s, 90s and 2000s
    491. 40 More Maps that Explain the World.
    492. 50 Best Inventions of 2018.
    493. 50 Smartest Companies in 2017.
    494. 80 Most Amazing Creative Inventions and Concept Designs.
    495. 100 Most Innovative Companies
    496. 100 Best Inventions of 2019
    497. 100+ No-Code Tools and App Development Platforms
    498. 101 Open Source Tools for Developers
    499. 101 Gadgets that Changed the World
    ▷ Cloud - Data Centers
    1. Cloud Computing Facts.
    2. Cloud Computing: A Complete Guide | IBM
    3. Cloud Computing Technologies: Cloud Services | AWS
    4. Cloud Computing Tutorial for Beginners
    5. Google Cloud: Cloud Computing Services
    6. Understanding Clouds | Red Hat
    7. Overview of Cloud Build
    8. Architecture for MLOps Using TensorFlow Extended, Vertex AI Pipelines, and Cloud Build
    9. GitOps-Style Continuous Delivery With Cloud Build
    10. Guide to Economic Benefits of Citrix Cloud.
    11. Predictions: Cloud Computing Accelerates Enterprise Transformation Everywhere.
    12. Key Cloud Trends
    13. Preparing for Cloud Computing Trends
    14. Cloud Computing Statistics Facts
    15. Department of Defense (DoD) Cloud Computing Security Requirements Guide | AWS
    16. DoD Cloud Strategy
    17. DoD Cloud Acquisition Guidebook
    18. Cloud Access Point (CAP) Functional Requirements Document
    19. Azure Government: DISA CAP Connection Process
    20. Secure Azure Computing Architecture
    21. The Open Group Cloud Ecosystem Reference Model.
    22. Practical Guide to Cloud Governance - Object Management
    23. Designing and Implementing Cloud Governance
    24. Governing the Cloud
    25. Towards Services-Based Enterprise Architecture for Cloud.
    26. Cloud Governance Framework.
    27. IT Governance in Cloud.
    28. Enterprise Risk Management for Cloud Computing.
    29. IT Control Objectives for Cloud Computing.
    30. Data Governance Taxonomy: Cloud versus Non-Cloud.
    31. A Comparison of Governance Models for Cloud Computing.
    32. Practical Guide to Platform-as-a-Service Version.
    33. A Decision Framework Model for Migration into Cloud.
    34. Information Governance for the Implementation of Cloud.
    35. Adoption of Cloud Computing in e-Governance.
    36. Smart Cloud Migration.
    37. The Application Rationalization Playbook |
    38. Cloud Computing Standards Roadmap. | NIST
    39. USG Cloud Computing Best Practices | GSA
    40. Cloud Strategy -
    41. AWS Prescriptive Guidance - Migration Strategy.
    42. Cloud Transformation Maturity Model - Awsstatic.
    43. Microsoft Enterprise Cloud Strategy
    44. Microsoft Azure: Cloud Computing Services
    45. Microsoft 365/Office 365 Overview
    46. Google Cloud: Cloud Computing Services
    47. Oracle Cloud: Cloud Infrastructure & Platform Services
    48. IBM Cloud
    49. Mitigating Cloud Vulnerabilities
    50. Security Guidance for Critical Areas of Focus in Cloud Computing V3.0
    51. Security Guidance for 5G Cloud Infrastructures: Part I - Part II - Part III (Data Protection)
    52. Ignite 5G Deployments with the VMware Telco Cloud
    53. The Cloud-Enabled Enterprise.
    54. Agile Enterprise Architecture: A Case of a Cloud Technology-enabled Government Enterprise Transformation
    55. Software Engineering for Cloud Computing
    56. The Definitive Guide to Cloud Adoption.
    57. Public vs Private vs Hybrid: Cloud Differences Explained
    58. Understanding the Cloud Computing Stack: SaaS, PaaS, IaaS
    59. Containerisation and the PaaS Cloud
    60. Container Readiness Guide
    61. Containerisation and the PaaS Cloud
    62. The IBM Sterling B2B/MFT Portfolio for Hybrid Cloud – Containerization of IBM Sterling B2B Integrator/File Gateway
    63. Designing Applications for Containerization and the Cloud
    64. Virtualization and Containerization of Application Infrastructure: A Comparison
    65. Docker and Kubernetes: Changing the OpenText Documentum deployment model White paper
    66. Multicore Processing, Virtualization, and Containerization: Similarities, Differences, Challenges and Recommendations
    67. A Modern Approach to Containerization in a Cloud First World
    68. Cloud Application Platform - Virtualization vs Containerization
    69. Introduction to Virtualization and Containers
    70. Multicore Processing, Virtualization, and Containerization: Similarities, Differences, Challenges and Recommendations
    71. Principles of Container-based Application Design
    72. Containers & Containerization: A Beginner’s Guide
    73. Cloud Computing Policy and Guidelines
    74. Cloud Computing Models | MIT
    75. Enterprise Cloud Strategy | Microsoft.
    76. DoD Cloud Computing Acquisition Guidebook (DAU).
    77. The Cloud Native Landscaped: The Runtime Layer Explaine
    78. A Study on Social Networks and Cloud Computing
    79. The Best Apps to Encrypt Your Files Before Uploading to the Cloud.
    80. Public Cloud vs. Internal Social Networks | Computerworld
    81. Achieving Cyber Governance Risk & Compliance in the Cloud.
    82. Planning & Management Methods for Migration to a Cloud.
    83. Enterprise Architecture and Services in Cloud Computing: A Survey.
    84. Cloud Enterprise Architecture.
    85. Enterprise Architecture and the Cloud.
    86. Enterprise Architecture Components for Cloud Service.
    87. A Design of Government Enterprise Architecture Framework Based on G-Cloud Services.
    88. Architecting the Cloud: Enterprise Architecture Patterns for Cloud Computing
    89. California Enterprise Architecture Framework Cloud.
    90. A Framework for Cloud Adoption from Enterprise Architecture.
    91. Tailoring Enterprise Architecture for Cloud Ecosystems.
    92. Cloud Customer Architecture for Hybrid Integration.
    93. Cloud Computing Security Essentials and Architecture
    94. Cloud Computing for Enterprise Architectures.
    95. Cloud Computing for Enterprise Architectures. | Springer
    96. Best Practices Guide for Energy-Efficient Data Center Design.
    97. Data Center Energy Efficiency Technologies and Methodologies
    98. A Detailed Guide to Enhancing Data Center Energy Efficiency.
    99. Green Data Center Frameworks and Guidelines Review.
    100. Google’s Green Data Centers: Network POP Case Study.
    101. Cisco Energy Efficient Data Center Solutions and Best Practices White Paper
    102. Data Center Best Practices Guide Energy - Efficiency Solutions for High-performance Data Centers.
    103. 10 Cloud Computing Predictions for 2018
    ▷ Architecture
    1. Establishing Enterprise Architecture on AWS.
    2. Wipro Global Enterprise Architecture | Oracle.
    3. Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) | OMB
    4. Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) | NIST
    5. The Common Approach to Federal Enterprise Architecture
    6. Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework, Version 2
    7. DODAF - DOD Architecture Framework Version 2.02
    8. DODAF Viewpoints and Models
    9. DoDAF Plugin User Guide | MagicDraw
    10. Enterprise Architecture Framework
    11. An Introduction to Enterprise Architecture.
    12. Successful Enterprise Architecture.
    13. Defendable Architectures
    14. Enterprise Architecture, IT Modernization, DevOps/Agile ...
    15. Enterprise Architecture Guide
    16. Enterprise Architecture Principles
    17. Introduction to Enterprise Architecture: TOGAF
    18. The Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture
    19. Enterprise Architecture Methodologies and Comparisons
    20. A Comparison of Enterprise Architecture Frameworks
    21. Introduction to Enterprise Architecture | NYU
    22. Enterprise Architecture Governance Procedures
    23. Enterprise Architecture Process, Structure and Organization
    24. Creating an Agile Enterprise Architecture
    25. Enterprise IT Architecture
    26. IT Security Architecture
    27. Enterprise Security Architecture: A Framework and Template for Policy-Driven Security
    28. The Security Architect and Cybersecurity
    29. Open Reference Architecture for Security and Privacy
    30. An Analysis of Cyber Reference Architectures
    31. ITU National Cybersecurity Guide
    32. Microsoft Cloud Architecture Security
    33. .GOV Cybersecurity Architecture Review
    34. Network Security Architecture
    35. Federal Security Architecture
    36. A Cyber Security Architecture for Military Networks Using a Cognitive Network Approach
    37. Enterprise Information Architecture: An Overview
    38. Developing a Standard Enterprise Architecture Practice
    39. Digital Enterprise Architecture: Four Elements Critical to Solution Envisioning
    40. Enterprise Architecture: Enabling Digital Transformation at Intel
    41. Modelling the Enterprise Data Architecture
    42. Overview of Enterprise Data Architecture
    43. Defining the Big Data Architecture Framework
    44. Architecture of a Database System
    45. Architecture Framework and Components of the Big Data Ecosystem
    46. Understanding Reference Models and Reference Architectures
    47. The TOGAF Standard, Version 9.2 - Architecture Governance
    ▷ Artificial Intelligence - Machine Learning - Robotics
    1. Microsoft Reportedly to Add ChatGPT to Bing Search Engine
    2. Microsoft and OpenAI Working on ChatGPT-Powered Bing in Challenge to Google
    3. ChatGPT and Other Chat Bots Are a ‘Code Red’ for Google Search
    4. Google vs. ChatGPT: What Happened When I Swapped Services for a Day
    5. ChatGPT: Understanding the ChatGPT AI Chatbot
    6. AI Chatbot Falls Just Short on Accounting Exam
    7. The Brilliance and Weirdness of ChatGPT
    8. ChatGPT Can Write Code. Now Researchers Say It's Good at Fixing Bugs, Too
    9. ChatGPT Proves AI Is Finally Mainstream — and Things Are Only Going to Get Weirder
    10. ChatGPT: Threat or Menace?
    11. ChatGPT - Discover AI Use Cases
    12. ChatGPT | Wikipedia
    13. ChatGPT: Artificial Intelligence for Education
    14. ChatGPT Usage and Limitations
    15. A Brief Review of ChatGPT: Its Value and the Underlying GPT Technology
    16. ChatGPT: Optimizing Language Models for Dialogue
    17. Google Bard First Impressions — Will It Kill ChatGPT?
    18. MLOps: Continuous Delivery and Automation Pipelines in Machine Learning
    19. The Future of Robotics Technology
    20. Introduction to Robotics | MIT
    21. Introduction to Robotics | Stanford
    22. Introduction to Robotics |
    23. Introduction to Robotics |
    24. Introduction to Robotics |
    25. Introduction to Robotics |
    26. Introduction to Robotics
    27. An Introduction to Robotics |
    28. Introduction to Robotics - Mechanics & Controls
    29. Introduction to Robotics - Mechanics, Planning & Controls
    30. Robot Revolution
    31. Robots: Everything About the Past, Present and Future of Robotics
    32. Learning Computing With Robots
    33. Robotics in the Classroom
    34. Robot Operations
    35. First Robotics Competition Makes Science Cool!
    36. Programming for Robotics - Introduction to ROS
    37. Programming a Robot Using C++
    38. The Beginner's Guide to Building Robots
    39. A Guide to Controlling Autonomous Robots
    40. A Guide to Programming Your Own Robots
    41. Robot Programming
    42. Programming With Robots
    43. Artificial Intelligence in Health Care
    44. Artificial Intelligence and the Health Care Workforce
    45. Preparing for the Future of Artificial Intelligence
    46. Understanding Artificial Intelligence Technology
    47. Logic and Artificial Intelligence
    48. Artificial Intelligence Policy: A Primer and Roadmap
    49. Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach
    50. Getting Started with Artificial Intelligence
    51. Artificial Intelligence, Automation and Work
    52. AI Is Finally Good at Stuff, and That’s a Problem
    53. National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence
    54. Artificial Intelligence: Using Standards to Mitigate Risks
    55. An Overview of Artificial Intelligence
    56. Artificial Intelligence in Health Care
    57. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML) - Enabled Medical Devices
    58. Artificial Intelligence Review
    59. Fundamentals of Artificial Intelligence
    60. An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence
    61. Artificial Intelligence and its Role in Near Future.
    62. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics.
    63. Artificial Intelligence and Life in 2030
    64. Artificial Intelligence Can Help You Protect Your Personal Data
    65. The Pentagon Plans to Spend $2 Billion to Put More Artificial Intelligence into Its Weaponry
    66. Defense Department Pledges Billions Toward Artificial Intelligence Research
    67. Artificial Intelligence Is Now a Pentagon Priority. Will Silicon Valley Help?
    68. No Linux? No Problem. Just Get AI to Hallucinate It for You
    69. With ChatGPT, Is AI Coming of Age - or Starting to Reach Its Limits
    70. The Amazing Ways Chinese Tech Giant Alibaba Uses Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning
    71. Practical Artificial Intelligence for Dummies.
    72. Artificial Intelligence | Deloitte
    73. Artificial Intelligence
    74. The Ethics of Artificial Intelligence - Machine Intelligence.
    75. Overview and Applications of Artificial Intelligence.
    76. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
    77. Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Data Science — UQ Capabilities
    78. Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Consumer Products
    79. Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning: The Next Generation
    80. Difference Between Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
    81. Understanding Machine Learning from Theory to Algorithms
    82. Algorithmic Aspects of Machine Learning
    83. Foundations of Machine Learning Regression
    84. A Course in Machine Learning
    85. Online Machine Learning: An Introduction
    86. Machine Learning - Simply Easy Learning
    87. Machine Learning for Dummies | IBM
    88. Machine Learning: Decision Trees
    89. Practical Machine Learning in R - Introduction
    90. Machine Learning Basic Concepts
    91. Machine Learning
    92. Introduction to Machine Learning |
    93. Introduction to Machine Learning |
    94. Impact of Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automation Technologies on Work
    95. A Gentle Introduction to MLOps - A Guide to the World of Machine …
    96. Artificial Intelligence and Robotic Process Automation
    97. Adopting Robotic Process Automation in Internal Audit
    98. Transforming Business Models with Robotic Process Automation
    99. Security Considerations in Robotic Process Automation
    100. Understanding Robotic Process Automation
    101. Robotic Process Automation in Insurance
    102. Process Mining and Robotic Process Automation: A Perfect Match
    103. Steps of RPA Implementation with Process Mining
    104. Robotic Cognitive Automation
    105. UiPath – Use of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
    106. Robotic Process Automation and Intelligent Character Recognition: Smart Data Capture
    107. In-Depth Guide to Robotic Process Automation (RPA)
    108. Robotic Process Automation in Federal Agencies
    109. Magic Quadrant for Robotic Process Automation
    110. Robotic Process Automation |
    111. Robotic Process Automation | Micro Focus.
    112. Robotic Process Automation | UiPath.
    113. Robotic Process Automation | Blue Prism.
    114. Robotic Process Automation | Automation Anywhere
    115. Robotic Process Automation (RPA) | IBM.
    116. Robotic Process Automation (RPA).
    117. Hyper Automation
    118. Automation with Intelligence
    119. Understanding of iRobot's Technology.
    120. 14 Top Artificial Intelligence (AI) Applications.
    ▷ History & Timeline
    1. History of Invention
    2. History of Nuclear Weapons
    3. History of Nuclear Energy
    4. History of Argonne Reactor Operations
    5. History of Aerospace
    6. History of Artificial Intelligence
    7. History of Agriculture
    8. History of Agricultural Science
    9. History of Architecture, Timeline
    10. History of Biotechnology
    11. History of Cartography
    12. History of Chemical Engineering
    13. History of Communication
    14. History of Electrical Engineering
    15. History of Energy Development
    16. History of Engineering
    17. History of Semiconductors
    18. History of Genomics.
    19. History of Industry
    20. History of Library and Information Science
    21. History of Microscopy
    22. History of Manufacturing
    23. History of Materials Science, Timeline
    24. History of Measurement
    25. History of Medicine
    26. History of Motor and Engine Technology
    27. History of Military Science
    28. History of Transport, Timeline
    29. History of Biotechnology
    30. History of Gravity.
    31. History of the Search for Gravitational Waves.
    32. History of On-Orbit Satellite Fragmentations
    33. History of Drones (Drone History Timeline from 1849 to 2019).
    34. History of Drones in 10 Milestones.
    35. History of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs).
    36. History of Display Technology
    37. History of Film Technology
    38. History of Information Technology Auditing
    39. History of Military Technology
    40. History of Nanotechnology
    41. History of Science and Technology
    42. History of Web Syndication Technology
    43. History of Gravitational Lensing.
    44. History of DNA
    45. History of DNA Timeline
    46. History of Biochemistry
    47. History of the Periodic Table
    48. History of Genetics: Defining Experiments in Genetics.
    49. History and Structure of the Universe (Infographic).
    50. History of Science and Technology
    51. History of Satellites and Timeline | JPL
    52. History of Company Behind ChatGPT, Musk-Founded OpenAI
    53. The History of Artificial Intelligence | Harvard
    54. The History of Life on Earth
    55. The History of Car Technology.
    56. The History of WiFi: 1971 to Today
    57. A Brief History of Entertainment Lighting Sources
    58. A Short History of the Discovery of Viruses
    59. A Short History of DNA Technology
    60. Introduction to History of Semiconductors
    61. "Moore's Law" Predicts the Future of Integrated Circuits - Oral History of Gordon Moore
    62. ChatGPT: History, Features, Uses, Benefits, Drawbacks
    63. E-commerce Defined: Types, History, and Examples
    64. The Deadliest Viruses in History
    65. Geologic Time Scale and Brief History of Life on Earth
    66. Geologic Time and Earth’s Biological History
    67. Gravitational Waves: A Brief History of Gravity and LIGO.
    68. 'Mummies of the World' Uncovers History
    69. Submarines: History, Facts and Operators
    70. Submarines in the United States Navy and History
    71. Navy Ships Classes, Galleries and Photographic History
    72. The Fascinating History of Drone Warfare.
    73. Elevator History - Facts and Information
    74. Fairchild Oral History Panel: “The Legacy of Fairchild”.
    75. A Survey on Wearable Technology: History, State-of-the-Art and Current Challenges
    76. 5G Telecommunication Technology: History, Overview, Requirements and Use Case Scenario ...
    77. 19 Great Inventions That Revolutionized History.
    78. Timeline of Historic Inventions
    79. Timeline of the Evolutionary History of Life
    80. Timeline of Biotechnology
    81. Timeline of Agriculture and Food Technology
    82. Timeline of clothing and Textiles Technology
    83. Timeline of Communication Technology
    84. Timeline of Diving Technology
    85. Timeline of Heat Engine Technology
    86. Timeline of Hypertext Technology
    87. Timeline of Lighting Technology
    88. Timeline of Low-Temperature Technology
    89. Timeline of Materials Technology
    90. Timeline of Medicine and Medical Technology
    91. Timeline of Microscope Technology
    92. Timeline of Motor and Engine Technology
    93. Timeline of Particle Physics Technology
    94. Timeline of Photography Technology
    95. Timeline of Rocket and Missile Technology
    96. Timeline of Telescope Technology
    97. Timeline of Telescopes, Observatories, and Observing Technology
    98. Timeline of Temperature and Pressure Measurement Technology
    99. Timeline of Time Measurement Technology
    100. Timeline of Transportation Technology
    101. Inventors and Inventions: 19th Century Timeline
    102. Inventions of the 1800's Timeline
    ▷ How, Who, What, When, Where & Why
    1. How to Make a Black Hole.
    2. How to Build a Nuclear Bomb
    3. How to Build an Airplane
    4. How to Build a Ship.
    5. How to View the Source Code of an Open-Source Piece of Software
    6. How to Develop a Medical Device
    7. How to Build a Car by Hand (video)
    8. How to Build Your Own Custom ChatGPT Bot With Custom Knowledge Base
    9. How to Run a Successful Free Software Project.
    10. How to Create a Research Design
    11. How New Technologies Have Changed the Automotive Industry
    12. How Products Were Made
    13. How Nuclear Weapons
    14. How Entanglement Has Become a Powerful Tool - The Nobel Prize in Physics 2022
    15. How Are Elements Created in Stars in Nuclear Fusion?
    16. How Airplanes Are Made - The Process from Design to Flight
    17. How Satellites Have Changed the Modern World
    18. How Are Drugs Designed and Developed?
    19. How Area 51 Works.
    20. How Do Thermoelectric Coolers (TEC) Work
    21. How Do Nuclear Weapons Work?
    22. How Do Atomic Bombs Work? A Simple Overview
    23. How Do Cameras Work?
    24. How Do Drones Work and What Is Drone Technology?
    25. How Does Thermal Imaging Work?
    26. How Does Artificial Intelligence Work, Why Does It Matter, and What Can We Do About It?
    27. How Does Fusion Energy Work?
    28. How Does the Brain Work?
    29. How an Addicted Brain Works | Yale Medicine
    30. How the Brain Works | Johns Hopkins Medicine
    31. How Your Brain Works: A Simple Look at the Processes That Drive Behaviour
    32. How Capacitors Work.
    33. How Nuclear Bombs Work
    34. How Nuclear Power Works
    35. How Close Are Scientists to Developing Fusion Energy?
    36. How Big Is Pluto? New Horizons Settles Decades-Long Debate.
    37. How Google Is Building the Fastest Internet Cable to Cross the Atlantic.
    38. How Cloud Computing Works.
    39. How Submarines Work
    40. How Global Positioning System Works, Limitations, and Some Guidelines for Operation
    41. How China Could Beat the West in the Deadly Race for Artificial Intelligence Weapons
    42. How ChatGPT Kicked Off an A.I. Arms Race
    43. How ChatGPT Works: The Model Behind the Bot
    44. How Bots, Algorithms, and Artificial Intelligence Are Reshaping the Future of Corporate Support Functions
    45. How Satellites and Sensors Work
    46. How Trees Calm Us Down.
    47. How the Soil Remembers Plantation Slavery
    48. How Rubber Plantations Reshaped Vietnam
    49. How Modern Data Architecture Drives Real Business Results
    50. How Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Can Help You in Your Everyday Life
    51. Who Invented Drones?
    52. What Is the Black Hole Firewall Paradox?
    53. What Are Black Holes? | NASA
    54. What Is the Big Bang Theory? | Space
    55. What Is The Evidence for the Big Bang?
    56. What Is Science?
    57. What Is Bioscience?
    58. What Is Solid State Physics?
    59. What Is the Anthropocene?
    60. What Is the Anthropocene? | EOS
    61. What Is the Anthropocene? Why Does It Matter?
    62. What Is the Anthropocene Epoch?
    63. What Is DARPA's Current Investment Portfolio?
    64. What Is Fusion, and Why Is It So Difficult to Achieve?
    65. What Is GPS? and How Does GPS Work?
    66. What Is a Satellite?
    67. What Is Robotics?
    68. What Is Artificial Intelligence? Everything You Need to Know About AI
    69. What Is Artificial Intelligence | MIT
    70. What Is Machine Learning? | IBM
    71. What Is Machine Learning? | Princeton University
    72. What Is MLOps? An Introduction to the World of Machine Learning Operations
    73. What Is RPA Blue Prism? A Beginner's Guide to Blue Prism.
    74. What Is Made in America?
    75. What Is Microsoft 365/Office 365?
    76. What Is the Difference Between Microsoft 365 and Office 2019?
    77. What Is Data Integration?
    78. What Is Cloud Computing? | Oracle
    79. What Is Cloud Computing? | AWS
    80. What Is Cloud Computing? -
    81. What Is Cloud Computing & How Does 'The Cloud' Work?
    82. What Is Content Management System?.
    83. What Is DevOps?.
    84. What Is DevSecOps?.
    85. What Is DevSecOps? | IBM.
    86. What Is DevSecOps and Why Is It Important?
    87. What Is DevSecOps and How Does It Work?
    88. What Is the Difference Between DevSecOps and Agile Software
    89. What Is the Difference Between DevOps and DevSecOps
    90. What Is the Difference Between SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS and How to Choose It.
    91. What Is the Difference Between Agile and DevOps? |
    92. What Is the Difference Between DevOps vs Agile? |
    93. What Is the Difference between Classical Physics and Quantum Physics
    94. What Is a Cell, a Gene, DNA, Noncoding DNA, and a Chromosome (How Many)?.
    95. What Is the Universe Made of?.
    96. What Is OpenAI’s Chatbot and What Is It Used for?
    97. What Is ChatGPT and Why Does It Matter?
    98. What Is RPA? A Revolution in Business Process Automation.
    99. What Is Genealogy and How to Start?.
    100. What Is a No-Code Software?
    101. What Is No Code? A Review of 12+ Low Code and No Code Development Platforms
    102. What Is Open Source Code?.
    103. What Is Open Source Software?.
    104. What Is Digital Transformation? | IBM
    105. What Is Digital Transformation?
    106. What Is Encryption and How Does It Work?.
    107. What Is Cloud Computing? A Beginner's Guide | Microsoft Azure.
    108. What Is Ahead for Science?.
    109. What Is Data Governance and Why Does It Matter?.
    110. What Is B2B eCommerce? A Complete Guide
    111. What Is B2B Ecommerce? A Complete Guide| Salesforce
    112. What Is Ecommerce? The Complete Guide To Online Selling
    113. What Is B2B Ecommerce? Types + Examples
    114. What Are Change Management Techniques?
    115. What Are the 10 Greatest Inventions of Our Time?.
    116. What Are the Greatest Scientific Discoveries of All Time?
    117. What Are Drone Ethical Issues?
    118. What Would Happen If You Shot a Gun in Space?
    119. What Does Brain Size Have to Do with Intelligence?.
    120. What Drones Can Do and How They Can Do It
    121. What Has Chemistry Ever Done for You?
    122. What Screen Resolution Might the iPhone 6 Have?
    123. What, Why, How, Who, and Best Practices for Data Governance.
    124. When Low-Code/No-Code Development Works ...
    125. When Will We Have Nuclear Fusion Energy?
    126. Where Is Life Science Heading in the Future?
    127. Where Do Black Holes Lead? |
    128. Who Are the Winners of Nobel Physics Prize 2010?
    129. Why Are There Still So Few Women in Science?.
    130. Why Americans Trust Technology But Not Science.
    131. Why "Free Software" Is Better than "Open Source".
    132. Why You Shouldn't Buy Apple iPhone X
    133. Why Are 'No Code' and 'Low Code' Platforms on the Rise?
    134. Why Connectivity Matters
    135. Why Use Containers and Cloud-Native Functions Anyway?
    136. Why Water Is Important to Life
    137. Why the Earth’s Past Has Scientists So Worried About Sea Level Rise
    138. Why Experts Are Skeptical About That Supposed Superconductor Breakthrough
    Internet of Things (IOT)
    Source: State of the Connected World 2020

    Technology Innovation
    1656: Pendulum Clock 1829: Typewriter
    1877: Telephone 1882: First Power Plant
    1889: Automatic Dishwasher 1897: Radio
    1906: Wristwatch 1926: "Transistor" Patented
    1928: Television 1946: Mobile Phone
    1943: Colossus Computer Unveiled 1947: Transistor Invented
    1953: 1st Transistor Built 1954: 1st Silicon Transistor Built
    1955: "Oxide Masking" Developed 1955: Silicon Valley Laid
    1956: Transistor Recognized 1957: Silicon Industry Take-off
    1958: First Integrated Circuit 1959: Planar Process Developed
    1965: Moores Law Published 1968: HP First PC Announced
    1971: Intel 4004 Microprocessor 1975: Altair 8800 PC Launched
    1975: Moores Law Revised 1976: Apple1 Computer Launched
    1980: Personal Computers 1981: IBM Business PC Launched
    1983: Cellular Technology 1988: Internet
    1989: Intel 80486 Microprocessor 1993: First Pentium Processor
    1993: Web Browser 1997: Blogs
    1998: Google 2000: Wikipedia
    2000: Chip Technology 2000: First GigaHertz Processor
    2001: IBM Multicore Chip 2005: Cell Processor
    2003: Social Network 2004: Podcast
    2005: YouTube 2006: Twitter

    Great Inventors
    Babbage, Charles
    Banneker, Benjamin
    Bell, Alexander Graham
    Bohr, Niels
    Bose, Satyendranath
    Braille, Louis
    Carver, GW
    Copernicus, Nicolaus
    Curie, Marie
    Curie, Pierre
    Dalton, John
    Eastman, George
    Edison, Thomas Alva
    Einstein, Albert
    Farnsworth, Philo
    Faraday, Michael
    Fermi, Enrico
    Franklin, Benjamin
    Galilei, Galileo
    Goddard, Robert
    Gutenberg, Johannes
    Hahn, Otto
    Hawking, Stephen
    Heisenberg, Werner
    Kamen, Dea
    Leeuwenhoek, Antony
    Mendel, Gregor
    Mendeleev, Dimitri
    Newton, Isaac
    Marconi, Guglielmo
    McCoy, Elijah
    Morgan, Garrett
    Nobel, Alfred
    Oppenheimer, Julius Robert
    Pascal, Blaise
    Pasteur, Louis
    Pauling, Linus
    Planck, Max
    Roentgen, Wilhelm
    Rutherford, Ernest
    Salk, Jonas
    Schrodinger, Erwin
    Watt, James
    Whitney, Eli
    Wright Brothers

    Nobel Prize in Physics

    1. 2023: Anne L’Huillier, Ferenc Krausz & Anne L’Huillier
    2. 2022: Alain Aspect, John F. Clauser & Anton Zeilinger
    3. 2021: Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann & Giorgio Parisi
    4. 2020: Roger Penrose, Reinhard Genzel & Andrea Ghez
    5. 2019: James Peebles, Michel Mayor & Didier Queloz
    6. 2018: Arthur Ashkin, Gérard Mourou & Donna Strickland
    7. 2017: Rainer Weiss, Barry C. Barish & Kip S. Thorne
    8. 2016: David J. Thouless, F. Duncan M. Haldane, & J. Michael Kosterlitz
    9. 2015: Takaaki Kajita & Arthur B. McDonald
    10. 2014: Isamu Akasaki, Hiroshi Amano & Shuji Nakamura
    11. 2013: Francois Englert & Peter W. Higgs
    12. 2012: Serge Haroche & David J. Wineland
    13. 2011: Saul Perlmutter, Brian P. Schmidt & Adam G. Riess
    14. 2010: Andre Geim & Konstantin Novoselov
    15. 2009: Charles K. Kao, Willard S. Boyle, & George E. Smith
    16. 2008: Yoichiro Nambu, Makoto Kobayashi, Toshihide Maskawa
    17. 2007: Albert Fert, Peter Grünberg
    18. 2006: John C. Mather, George F. Smoot
    19. 2005: Roy J. Glauber, John L. Hall, & Theodor W. Hä
    20. 2004: David J. Gross, H. David Politzer, & Frank Wilczek
    21. 2003: Alexei A. Abrikosov, Vitaly L. Ginzburg, & Anthony J. Leggett
    22. 2002: Raymond Davis Jr., Masatoshi Koshiba, & Riccardo Giacconi
    23. 2001: Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle, & Carl E. Wieman
    24. 2000: Zhores I. Alferov, Herbert Kroemer, & Jack S. Kilby
    25. 1999: Gerardus't Hooft, Martinus J.G. Veltman
    26. 1998: Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer, Daniel C. Tsui
    27. 1997: Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, William D. Phillips
    28. 1996: David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff, Robert C. Richardson
    29. 1995: Martin L. Perl, Frederick Reines
    30. 1994: Bertram N. Brockhouse, Clifford G. Shull
    31. 1993: Russell A. Hulse, Joseph H. Taylor Jr.
    32. 1992: Georges Charpak
    33. 1991: Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
    34. 1990: Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall, Richard E. Taylor
    35. 1989: Norman F. Ramsey, Hans G. Dehmelt, Wolfgang Paul
    36. 1988: Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz, Jack Steinberger
    37. 1987: J. Georg Bednorz, K. Alex Müller
    38. 1986: Ernst Ruska, Gerd Binnig, Heinrich Rohrer
    39. 1985: Klaus von Klitzing
    40. 1984: Carlo Rubbia, Simon van der Meer
    41. 1983: Subramanyan Chandrasekhar, William A. Fowler
    42. 1982: Kenneth G. Wilson
    43. 1981: Nicolaas Bloembergen, Arthur L. Schawlow, Kai M. Siegbahn
    44. 1980: James Cronin, Val Fitch
    45. 1979: Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam, Steven Weinberg
    46. 1978: Pyotr Kapitsa, Arno Penzias, Robert Woodrow Wilson
    47. 1977: Philip W. Anderson, Sir Nevill F. Mott, John H. van Vleck
    48. 1976: Burton Richter, Samuel C.C. Ting
    49. 1975: Aage N. Bohr, Ben R. Mottelson, James Rainwater
    50. 1974: Martin Ryle, Antony Hewish
    51. 1973: Leo Esaki, Ivar Giaever, Brian D. Josephson
    52. 1972: John Bardeen, Leon N. Cooper, Robert Schrieffer
    53. 1971: Dennis Gabor
    54. 1970: Hannes Alfvén, Louis Néel
    55. 1969: Murray Gell-Mann
    56. 1968: Luis Alvarez
    57. 1967: Hans Bethe
    58. 1966: Alfred Kastler
    59. 1965: Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger, Richard P. Feynman
    60. 1964: Charles H. Townes, Nicolay G. Basov, Aleksandr M. Prokhorov
    61. 1963: Eugene Wigner, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, J. Hans D. Jensen
    62. 1962: Lev Landau
    63. 1961: Robert Hofstadter, Rudolf Mössbauer
    64. 1960: Donald A. Glaser
    65. 1959: Emilio Segrè, Owen Chamberlain
    66. 1958: Pavel A. Cherenkov, Il´ja M. Frank, Igor Y. Tamm
    67. 1957: Chen Ning Yang, Tsung-Dao Lee
    68. 1956: William B. Shockley, John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain
    69. 1955: Willis E. Lamb, Polykarp Kusch
    70. 1954: Max Born, Walther Bothe
    71. 1953: Frits Zernike
    72. 1952: Felix Bloch, E. M. Purcell
    73. 1951: John Cockcroft, Ernest T.S. Walton
    74. 1950: Cecil Powell
    75. 1949: Hideki Yukawa
    76. 1948: Patrick M.S. Blackett
    77. 1947: Edward V. Appleton
    78. 1946: Percy W. Bridgman
    79. 1945: Wolfgang Pauli
    80. 1944: Isidor Isaac Rabi
    81. 1943: Otto Stern
    82. 1942 - No Given Prize
    83. 1941 - No Given Prize
    84. 1940 - No Given Prize
    85. 1939: Ernest Lawrence
    86. 1938: Enrico Fermi
    87. 1937: Clinton Davisson, George Paget Thomson
    88. 1936: Victor F. Hess, Carl D. Anderson
    89. 1935: James Chadwick
    90. 1934: No Given Prize
    91. 1933: Erwin Schrödinger, Paul A.M. Dirac
    92. 1932: Werner Heisenberg
    93. 1931: No Given Prize
    94. 1930: Sir Venkata Raman
    95. 1929: Louis de Broglie
    96. 1928: Owen Willans Richardson
    97. 1927: Arthur H. Compton, C.T.R. Wilson
    98. 1926: Jean Baptiste Perrin
    99. 1925: James Franck, Gustav Hertz
    100. 1924: Manne Siegbahn
    101. 1923: Robert A. Millikan
    102. 1922: Niels Bohr
    103. 1921: Albert Einstein
    104. 1920: Charles Edouard Guillaume
    105. 1919: Johannes Stark
    106. 1918: Max Planck
    107. 1917: Charles Glover Barkla
    108. 1916: No Given Prize
    109. 1915: William Bragg, Lawrence Bragg
    110. 1914: Max von Laue
    111. 1913: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
    112. 1912: Gustaf Dalén
    113. 1911: Wilhelm Wien
    114. 1910: Johannes Diderik van der Waals
    115. 1909: Guglielmo Marconi, Ferdinand Braun
    116. 1908: Gabriel Lippmann
    117. 1907: Albert A. Michelson
    118. 1906: J.J. Thomson
    119. 1905: Philipp Lenard
    120. 1904: Lord Rayleigh
    121. 1903: Henri Becquerel, Pierre Curie, Marie Curie
    122. 1902: Hendrik A. Lorentz, Pieter Zeeman
    123. 1901: Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen

    Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    1. 2023 - Moungi G. Bawendi, Louis E. Brus & Alexei I. Ekimov
    2. 2021 - Benjamin List & David W.C. MacMillan
    3. 2020 - Emmanuelle Charpentier & Jennifer A. Doudna
    4. 2019 - John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham & Akira Yoshino
    5. 2018 - Frances H. Arnold, George P. Smith & Gregory P. Winter
    6. 2017 - Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank & Richard Henderson
    7. 2016 - Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart, Bernard L. Feringa
    8. 2015 - Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich & Aziz Sancar
    9. 2014 - Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell & William E. Moerner
    10. 2013 - Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt & Arieh Warshel
    11. 2012 - Robert J. Lefkowitz & Brian K. Kobilka
    12. 2011 - Dan Shechtman
    13. 2010 - Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki
    14. 2009 - Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas Steitz & Ada E.Yonath
    15. 2008 - Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie, Roger Y. Tsien
    16. 2007 - Gerhard Ertl
    17. 2006 - Roger D. Kornberg
    18. 2005 - Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs, Richard R. Schrock
    19. 2004 - Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, Irwin Rose
    20. 2003 - Peter Agre, Roderick MacKinnon
    21. 2002 - John B. Fenn, Koichi Tanaka, Kurt Wüthrich
    22. 2001 - William S. Knowles, Ryoji Noyori, K. Barry Sharpless
    23. 2000 - Alan Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid, Hideki Shirakawa
    24. 1999 - Ahmed Zewail
    25. 1998 - Walter Kohn, John Pople
    26. 1997 - Paul D. Boyer, John E. Walker, Jens C. Skou
    27. 1996 - Robert F. Curl Jr., Sir Harold Kroto, Richard E. Smalley
    28. 1995 - Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina, F. Sherwood Rowland
    29. 1994 - George A. Olah
    30. 1993 - Kary B. Mullis, Michael Smith
    31. 1992 - Rudolph A. Marcus
    32. 1991 - Richard R. Ernst
    33. 1990 - Elias James Corey
    34. 1989 - Sidney Altman, Thomas R. Cech
    35. 1988 - Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber, Hartmut Michel
    36. 1987 - Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn, Charles J. Pedersen
    37. 1986 - Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee, John C. Polanyi
    38. 1985 - Herbert A. Hauptman, Jerome Karle
    39. 1984 - Bruce Merrifield
    40. 1983 - Henry Taube
    41. 1982 - Aaron Klug
    42. 1981 - Kenichi Fukui, Roald Hoffmann
    43. 1980 - Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert, Frederick Sanger
    44. 1979 - Herbert C. Brown, Georg Wittig
    45. 1978 - Peter Mitchell
    46. 1977 - Ilya Prigogine
    47. 1976 - William Lipscomb
    48. 1975 - John Cornforth, Vladimir Prelog
    49. 1974 - Paul J. Flory
    50. 1973 - Ernst Otto Fischer, Geoffrey Wilkinson
    51. 1972 - Christian Anfinsen, Stanford Moore, William H. Stein
    52. 1971 - Gerhard Herzberg
    53. 1970 - Luis Leloir
    54. 1969 - Derek Barton, Odd Hassel
    55. 1968 - Lars Onsager
    56. 1967 - Manfred Eigen, Ronald G.W. Norrish, George Porter
    57. 1966 - Robert S. Mulliken
    58. 1965 - Robert B. Woodward
    59. 1964 - Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
    60. 1963 - Karl Ziegler, Giulio Natta
    61. 1962 - Max F. Perutz, John C. Kendrew
    62. 1961 - Melvin Calvin
    63. 1960 - Willard F. Libby
    64. 1959 - Jaroslav Heyrovsky
    65. 1958 - Frederick Sanger
    66. 1957 - Lord Todd
    67. 1956 - Sir Cyril Hinshelwood, Nikolay Semenov
    68. 1955 - Vincent du Vigneaud
    69. 1954 - Linus Pauling
    70. 1953 - Hermann Staudinger
    71. 1952 - Archer J.P. Martin, Richard L.M. Synge
    72. 1951 - Edwin M. McMillan, Glenn T. Seaborg
    73. 1950 - Otto Diels, Kurt Alder
    74. 1949 - William F. Giauque
    75. 1948 - Arne Tiselius
    76. 1947 - Sir Robert Robinson
    77. 1946 - James B. Sumner, John H. Northrop, Wendell M. Stanley
    78. 1945 - Artturi Virtanen
    79. 1944 - Otto Hahn
    80. 1943 - George de Hevesy
    81. 1942 - None
    82. 1941 - None
    83. 1940 - None
    84. 1939 - Adolf Butenandt, Leopold Ruzicka
    85. 1938 - Richard Kuhn
    86. 1937 - Norman Haworth, Paul Karrer
    87. 1936 - Peter Debye
    88. 1935 - Frédéric Joliot, Irčne Joliot-Curie
    89. 1934 - Harold C. Urey
    90. 1933 - None
    91. 1932 - Irving Langmuir
    92. 1931 - Carl Bosch, Friedrich Bergius
    93. 1930 - Hans Fischer
    94. 1929 - Arthur Harden, Hans von Euler-Chelpin
    95. 1928 - Adolf Windaus
    96. 1927 - Heinrich Wieland
    97. 1926 - The Svedberg
    98. 1925 - Richard Zsigmondy
    99. 1924 - None
    100. 1923 - Fritz Pregl
    101. 1922 - Francis W. Aston
    102. 1921 - Frederick Soddy
    103. 1920 - Walther Nernst
    104. 1919 - None
    105. 1918 - Fritz Haber
    106. 1917 - None
    107. 1916 - None
    108. 1915 - Richard Willstätter
    109. 1914 - Theodore W. Richards
    110. 1913 - Alfred Werner
    111. 1912 - Victor Grignard, Paul Sabatier
    112. 1911 - Marie Curie
    113. 1910 - Otto Wallach
    114. 1909 - Wilhelm Ostwald
    115. 1908 - Ernest Rutherford
    116. 1907 - Eduard Buchner
    117. 1906 - Henri Moissan
    118. 1905 - Adolf von Baeyer
    119. 1904 - Sir William Ramsay
    120. 1903 - Svante Arrhenius
    121. 1902 - Emil Fischer
    122. 1901 - Jacobus H. van 't Hoff

    Research & Development & Conference Listings

    Unsolved Problems
    AI Biology Chemistry Computer Sci
    Economics Linguistics Mathematics Medicine
    Neuroscience Philosophy Physics Statistics

    Unsolved Math Problems

    1. Are there infinitely many real quadratic number fields with unique factorization?
    2. Are there infinitely many perfect numbers?
    3. Brocard's problem: existence of integers, n,m, such that n!+1=m2 other than n=4,5,7
    4. Determine if any odd perfect numbers exist?
    5. Determine if any quasiperfect numbers exist?
    6. Determine if any Lychrel numbers exist?
    7. Determine if any odd weird numbers exist?
    8. Determine if the Euler-Mascheroni constant is irrational.
    9. Determine whether NP-problems are actually P-problems.
    10. Derive an analytic form for the square site percolation threshold.
    11. Find a formula for the probability that two elements chosen at random generate the symmetric group .
    12. Find an Euler brick whose space diagonal is also an integer.
    13. Find numbers that can be represented as a sum of three or four (positive or negative) cubic numbers.
    14. Lehmer's totient problem: if φ(n) divides n − 1, must n be prime?
    15. Prove that the 196-algorithm does not terminate when applied to the number 196.
    16. Prove that 10 is a solitary number.
    17. The Hadamard matrix - Prove that there exists a Hadamard matrix for every positive multiple of 4.
    18. The twin prime conjecture - Prove that there is an infinite number of twin primes.
    19. Solve the happy end problem for arbitrary n.v
    20. The Goldbach's Conjecture.- Prove that every even integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two primes
    21. The Gilbreath's Conjecture.
    22. The Hilbert's sixteenth problem.
    23. The Riemann Hypothesis.
    24. The Diophantine Quintuple.
    25. The Collatz Conjecture .
    26. The Waring's problem.
    27. The Erdős conjecture on arithmetic progressions.

    U.S. Universities & Colleges
    | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |

    Understanding of Things-- Time makes sense in small pieces. But when looking at huge stretches of time, it's almost impossible to wrap our head around things. The site provides videos to put things in perspective with some infographics!

    Physics World-- Features news, views and information for the global physics community from Institute of Physics Publishing...

    Popular Science-- A science magazine featuring up-to-the-minute news, gadget reviews, insightful commentary, and more.

    Popular Mechanics-- A service magazine covering a variety of information on home improvement, automotive needs, electronics, computers...

    Imaginova-- Imaginova is the preeminent online life science news. Its network includes,,, and Imaginova's original content is syndicated through major online portals and licensed by educational products available at,, and

    Chemistry: Periodic Table-- Web Elements aims to be a high quality source of chemistry information relating to the periodic table. Coverage is such that professional scientists and students at school interested in chemistry and other sciences will all find something useful.

    CISTI - Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information-- One of the world's major sources for information in all areas of science, technology, engineering and medicine,  CISTI began over 75 years ago as the library of the National Research Council of Canada, the leading agency for R&D in Canada, and became the National Science Library in 1957.

    Computer User - -  Techology Trends and Tools.-- Computer User has extensive information from archive sources to rich IT dictionary.

    George Mason University Echo’s Research Center-- Echo’s research center catalogues, annotates, and reviews sites on the history of technology, industry, and science. It incorporates the WWW Virtual Library for the History of Science, Technology, Medicine, and Industry - an index of more than 5,000 websites, many with excerpts and annotations.

    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) -- A non-profit global membership organization, IEEE is the world's leading professional association for the advancement of technology. Its interest areas ranges from aerospace systems, computers and telecommunications to biomedical engineering, electric power and consumer electronics among others.

    The History of Computing Project -- Providing a repository where the knowledge of computing, past, contemporary and future, is and will be preserved, such as information on IT hardware/software and electronics among others.

    Infomine -- A virtual library of Internet resources.  It contains useful Internet resources such as databases, electronic journals, electronic books, bulletin boards, mailing lists, online library card catalogs, articles, directories of researchers, and many other types of information.

    Institute of Physics-- The Institute of Physics, a leading communicator of physics, promotes interest and participation in physics across society. Its publishing company, IOP Publishing, is a world leader in scientific publishing and the electronic dissemination of physics.

    IPL - The First Internet Library ...-- Are you trying to replace traditional libraries? - No, no, no! Far from it. What we are trying to do is explore what the rich history and intellectual traditions of librarianship have to offer the dynamic but, ...why not try to find out what we can do with digital media?

    The International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO)-- is the World Championship Mathematics Competition for High School students and is held annually in a different country. The first IMO was held in 1959 in Romania, with 7 countries participating. It has gradually expanded to over 90 countries from 5 continents.

    Naked Scientists-- The Naked Scientists are a group of doctors and scientists who enjoy communicating science to the general public via radio shows.  This website contains archived editions of the previous shows in text and streamed audio formats, science articles by scientists from various fields, a lively science discussion forum, and reviews of the latest science books to hit the stores.

    National Science Foundation - . -- The National Science Foundation (NSF) promotes the progress of science to advance the national health, prosperity, and welfare, and secure the national defense… The NSF also provides the results of surveys and reports related to statistics on the sciences in the U.S.

    Nobel -- On November 27, 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his last will in Paris, briefly outlining his vision of five prizes for those who during the past year have done humanity the greatest service.

    Nobel Channel -- A very informative web site that brings to life those that have won the Nobel Prize with movies and audio of speeches.

    Nobel Prize Internet Archive -- An impressive site that collects information about all of the past Nobel Laureates, organized by prize and year, brief biographical information and links.

    PSIGate -- An informative site that provides free online resources for students, researchers and practitioners in the physical sciences, including astronomy, chemistry, earth sciences, physics, and science history and policy.

    Royal Society of Chemistry -- is the largest organization in Europe for advancing the chemical sciences. It is for everyone interested in the chemical sciences - with events, features, links, educational materials plus the ever-popular Visual Elements Periodic Table and Timeline.

    SciCentral-- As the scientific Internet matured, online research news channels became more organized and powerful new sources arose that provided timely, extensive, and reliable information. Since the emergence of a strong, coherent, and organized scientific Internet had always been the anticipation of SciCentral.

    SciELO -- The Scientific Electronic Library Online - SciELO is an electronic library covering a selected collection of Brazilian scientific journals. The library provides full access to a collection of serial titles, a collection of issues from individual serial titles, as well as to the full text of articles.

    Scientific American-- Scientific American, the oldest continuously published magazine in the U.S., has been bringing its readers unique insights about developments in science and technology for more than 150 years.

    Scorecard -- Find out about the pollution problems in your community.  See which geographic areas and companies have the worst pollution records. Identify which racial/ethnic and income groups bear more than their share of environmental burdens.

    Visible Earth -- A catalog of NASA images and animations of our home planets. These images produced by the SeaWiFS, QuickBird, and IKONOS instruments and managed by NASA. -- A place for "Fast Reference" and learning tools - is a knowledge exploration and self-education tool about information technology, especially about the Internet and computers. It contains over 4,500 individual encyclopedic definition/topics...

    VTIC'97 -- The Second Annual Vietnamese Association for Computing, Engineering, Technology and Sciences (VACETS) International Technical Conference is part of its on-going efforts to create an opportunity for overseas Vietnamese scientific and technical professionals to meet, exchange knowledge, and share their achievements.

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    138. Inflation
    139. Inflation and String Theory
    140. Inflationary Cosmology and Structure Formation
    141. Intermediate Fluid Mechanics (Lecture Notes)
    142. Intermediate Thermodynamics (Lecture Notes)
    143. Introduction to Cosmology (2009)
    144. Introduction to Cosmology (1993)
    145. Introduction to Aerospace Structures and Materials
    146. Introduction to Linear, Time-Invariant, Dynamic Systems for Students of Engineering
    147. Introduction to the Aerodynamics of Flight
    148. Introduction to Early Universe Cosmology
    149. Introduction to Millimeter/Sub-Millimeter Astronomy
    150. Introduction to Non-Baryonic Dark Matter
    151. Introduction to Physical Astronomy
    152. Introduction to Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology through Maple
    153. Introduction to Supersymmetry: Astrophysical and Phenomenological Constraints
    154. Introduction to the Theory of Black Holes
    155. Introductory Lectures on Quantum Cosmology
    156. Innovations and New Technologies
    157. Large Scale Structure of the Universe
    158. Lectures on Astronomy, Astrophysics, and Cosmology
    159. Lectures On Black Hole Evaporation and Information Loss
    160. Lectures on Inflation and Cosmological Perturbations
    161. Les Houches Lectures on Black Holes
    162. Lopsided Spiral Galaxies
    163. Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon
    164. Magellan: The Unveiling of Venus
    165. Magnetic Fields, Strings and Cosmology
    166. Manufacturing the Future
    167. Mariner Mission to Venus
    168. Mars Science Laboratory
    169. Massive Stars and their Supernovae
    170. Mathematical Methods of Engineering Analysis
    171. Mathematics Formulary
    172. Mathematical Theories of Planetary Motions
    173. Mechanism of the Heavens
    174. Mercury
    175. Modeling Flight
    176. Modelling and Simulation
    177. Modeling, Simulation and Optimization: Tolerance and Optimal Control
    178. Modified Gravity and Cosmology
    179. Multi-messenger Astronomy and Dark Matter
    180. NASA Engineers and the Age of Apollo
    181. Ned Wright's Cosmology Tutorial
    182. Numerical Solutions of Engineering Problems
    183. Observational Probes of Cosmic Acceleration
    184. Observations of the High Redshift Universe
    185. Observatories in Space
    186. Observing the Sky from 30°S
    187. Observing the Sky from 40°N
    188. On Mars: Exploration of the Red Planet 1958-1978
    189. On the Origin (and Evolution) of Baryonic Galaxy Halos
    190. Origin of the Moon
    191. Particle Physics and Inflationary Cosmology
    192. Photographs of Nebulae and Clusters
    193. Physics Formulary
    194. Pioneer Saturn Encounter
    195. Pioneers of Science
    196. Planetary Photometry
    197. Planetary Rings
    198. Planetary Science: A Lunar Perspective
    199. Planetary Theory
    200. Popular Review of new Concepts, Ideas and Innovations in Space Launch and Flight
    201. Practical Astronomy (1925)
    202. Practical Astronomy (1915)
    203. Practical Astronomy for Engineers
    204. Primer Of Celestial Navigation
    205. Primordial Magnetogenesis
    206. Principles of Optimal Control (Lecture Notes)
    207. Protoplanetary Disks and Their Evolution
    208. Protostars and Planets IV
    209. Pursuit of Power: NASA's Propulsion Systems Laboratory # 1 & 2
    210. Quantum Mechanics of Black Holes
    211. Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft
    212. Radiative Gas Dynamics
    213. Recreations in Astronomy
    214. Remote Sensing Tutorial
    215. Resources of Near-Earth Space
    216. Rocket Propulsion ( Lecture Notes)
    217. Rockets and People, Volume 2: Creating a Rocket Industry
    218. Rockets and People, Volume 3: Hot Days of the Cold War
    219. Searching for Life Across Space and Time
    220. Short History of Astronomy
    221. Sky Surveys
    222. Solar Neutrinos
    223. Solar System
    224. Space Transport and Engineering Methods
    225. Space Handbook: Astronautics and Its Applications
    226. Space Nomads
    227. Spacecraft Dynamics
    228. Spacetime Warps and the Quantum: A Glimpse of the Future
    229. Spherical Astronomy
    230. Star-gazer's Hand-book; a Brief Guide for Amateur Students of Astronomy
    231. Stellar Atmospheres
    232. Stellar Astrophysics
    233. Stellar Structure and Evolution
    234. String Cosmology
    235. Supernova Cosmology: Legacy and Future
    236. Supernova Remnants: The X-ray Perspective
    237. Supernovae
    238. Superstring Cosmology
    239. Supply Chain
    240. Systems Theory
    241. Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket 1958-2002
    242. Techniques of Radio Astronomy
    243. Telescopic Work for Starlight Evenings
    244. Textbook on Practical Astronomy
    245. The Astrobiology Primer: An Outline of General Knowledge
    246. The Astronomy of the Bible
    247. The Beginning and the End: The Meaning of Life in a Cosmological Perspective
    248. The Beginning and Evolution of the Universe
    249. The Birth and Death of Stars
    250. The Birth and Death of The Sun
    251. The Calculus for Engineers
    252. The Cosmic Web: Geometric Analysis
    253. The Complete Idiot's Guide to The Sun
    254. The Cosmological Constant
    255. The Elements of Theoretical and Descriptive Astronomy
    256. The Exploration of the Earth's Magnetosphere
    257. The Fine-Tuning of the Universe for Intelligent Life
    258. The First Lunar Landing: As Told By The Astronauts
    259. The First Stars
    260. The Formation and Early Evolution of Planetary Systems
    261. The Formation and Evolution of the Solar System
    262. The Formation of Planets
    263. The Foundations of Celestial Mechanics
    264. The Fundamentals of Stellar Astrophysics
    265. The Future of Remote Sensing From Space
    266. The Galactic Habitable Zone I. Galactic Chemical Evolution
    267. The Geology of the Terrestrial Planets
    268. The History of Astrometry
    269. The Hubble Constant
    270. The Martian Landscape
    271. The New Engineering
    272. This New Ocean: The History of Space Flight
    273. The Practical Astronomer
    274. The Quantum Mechanics of Cosmology
    275. The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence, SETI
    276. The Shape of the Universe
    277. The Solar Magnetic Field
    278. The Star Splitters: The High Energy Astronomy Observatories
    279. The Story of Eclipses
    280. The Story of the Aeroplane
    281. The Telescope
    282. The Universe in a Helium Droplet
    283. The Virial Theorem in Stellar Astrophysics
    284. The World According to the Hubble Space Telescope
    285. Thermal Energy (Lecture Notes)
    286. Thermodynamics (Lecture Notes)
    287. This New Ocean: The History of Space Flight
    288. Through the Telescope
    289. To a Rocky Moon: A Geologist's History of Lunar Exploration
    290. To See the Unseen: A History of Planetary Radar Astronomy
    291. Traces of Catastrophe
    292. Trans-Neptunian Objects: An Overview
    293. Understanding Galaxy Formation and Evolution
    294. Views of the Solar System
    295. Viking Orbiter: Views of Mars
    296. Voyage to Jupiter
    297. Voyager 1 and 2: Atlas of Six Saturnian Satellites
    298. Voyager 1 Encounters Saturn
    299. Voyager Encounters Jupiter
    300. When Biospheres Collide: A History of NASA's Planetary Protection Programs
    301. Where Did The Moon Come From?
    302. Where No Man Has Gone Before: A History of Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions
    303. Why CMB Physics?
    304. Wind Tunnels
    305. Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story
    306. 10 Things Everyone Should Know About Inflation

    Popular Federal Contract Companies
    1. Lockheed Martin Corp.
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    5. Raytheon Co.
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    14. BAE Systems
    15. Dell Computer Corp.
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    17. United Technologies Corp.
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    50. NANA Regional Corp.
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    52. UNICOM Government.
    53. URS Corp.
    54. Deloitte & Touche LLP
    55. Vangent Inc.
    56. FLIR Systems Inc.
    57. CenturyLink, Inc.
    58. Tetra Tech Inc.
    59. MRIGlobal
    60. Arctic Slope Regional Corp.
    61. DAI.
    62. Telos Corp.
    63. Motorola Inc.

    Famous Mathematicians
    1. Terence Chi-Shen Tao (1975-)
    2. Andrew Wiles (1953-)
    3. Edward Witten (1951-)
    4. William Paul Thurston (1946-2012)
    5. Saharon Shelah (1945-)
    6. Pierre René Deligne (1944-)
    7. Mikhael Leonidovich Gromov (1943-)
    8. John Horton Conway (1937-)
    9. Vladimir Igorevich Arnold (1937-2010)
    10. Robert Phelan Langlands (1936-)
    11. John Griggs Thompson (1932-)
    12. John Willard Milnor (1931-)
    13. Michael Francis Atiyah (1929-)
    14. Lennart Axel Edvard Carleson (1928-)
    15. John Forbes Nash, Jr. (1928-2015)
    16. Alexandre Grothendieck (1928-2014)
    17. Jean-Pierre Serre (1926-)
    18. John Torrence Tate (1925-)
    19. Atle Selberg (1917-2007)
    20. Claude Elwood Shannon (1916-2001)
    21. Israel Moiseevich Gelfand (1913-2009)
    22. Samuel Eilenberg (1913-1998)
    23. Paul Erdös (1913-1996)
    24. Alan Turing (1912-1954)
    25. Shiing-Shen Chern (1911-2004)
    26. André Weil (1906-1998)
    27. Kurt Gödel (1906-1978)
    28. Henri Paul Cartan (1904-2008)
    29. Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (1903-1987)
    30. John von Neumann (1903-1957)
    31. Alfred Tarski (1902-1983)
    32. Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902-1984)
    33. Emil Artin (1898-1962)
    34. Pavel Sergeevich Aleksandrov (1896-1962)
    35. Carl Ludwig Siegel (1896-1981)
    36. Norbert Wiener (1894-1964)
    37. Stefan Banach (1892-1945)
    38. George Pólya (1887-1985)
    39. Thoralf Albert Skolem (1887-1963)
    40. Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887-1920)
    41. John Edensor Littlewood (1885-1977)
    42. Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl (1885-1955)
    43. George David Birkhoff (1884-1984)
    44. Solomon Lefschetz (1884-1972)
    45. Waclaw Sierpinski (1882-1969)
    46. Amalie Emmy Noether (1882-1935)
    47. Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer (1881-1966)
    48. Oswald Veblen (1880-1960)
    49. Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
    50. René Maurice Fréchet (1878-1973)
    51. Godfrey Harold Hardy (1877-1947)
    52. Edmund Landau (1877-1938)
    53. Henri Léon Lebesgue (1875-1941)
    54. Tullio Levi-Civita (1873-1941)
    55. Émile Borel (1871-1956)
    56. Élie Joseph Cartan (1869-1951)
    57. Felix Hausdorff (1868-1942)
    58. Jacques Salomon Hadamard (1865-1963)
    59. Hermann Minkowski (1864-1909)
    60. David Hilbert (1862-1943)
    61. Vito Volterra (1860-1946)
    62. Georg Cantor (1845-1918)

    Technical Paper: The Beauty of Internet

    Most Favorite Products

    • Sammsung Galaxy S9 - The design, display, and specs of the S9 bring zero surprises, but they are the things that influence your day-to-day use of the phone more than anything else.

    • Apple iPhone X - The iPhone 8 Plus is a great phone with a great blend of handheld comfort and a big, gorgeous OLED screen. Rear telephoto camera outshoots the 8 Plus in low light, and the front camera snaps impressive portrait selfies.

    • Apple iPhone 8 Plus - The iPhone 8 Plus is a great phone with a spectacular camera that offers a lot of what iPhone X has under the hood, but in a lot less exciting body.

    • Apple iPhone 8 - The iPhone 8 offers wireless charging, lightning-fast performance and small but solid upgrades to its camera, screen and speakers. Its starting storage size is a roomy 64GB, double that of the iPhone 7.

    • Atlas - The Agile Anthropomorphic Robot - Atlas is a hydraulically powered robot in the form of an adult human. It is capable of a variety of natural movements, including dynamic walking, calisthenics and user-programmed behavior.

    • iPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus - The iPhone 7's overall design is similar to the iPhone 6S, but introduces new color options, water and dust resistance, a new capacitive, static home button, and removes the 3.5 mm headphone jack. .

    • iPhone 6s Plus - A touch screen-based smart phone developed by Apple. Fantastic 5.5-inch screen, superb battery life, great camera with OIS, excellent gaming performance.

    • iPhone 6s - Apple's done what we all expected - finely balanced its latest phone. 3D Touch is a genuine innovation, and the phone works fluidly at nearly every task - but it's very similar to 2014's model.

    • iPhone 6 Plus - The touch screen-based iPhone 6 is an exceptional phone. It's thin, fast, and features the excellent iOS operating system. The big battery provides long life, and the 5.5-inch screen is not only big but bright and high-contrast. Optical image stabilization improves low-light photography..

    • iPhone 6 - The touch screen-based iPhone 6 is an exceptional phone in nearly every way except its average battery life: it's thin, fast, and features the excellent iOS operating system. It was the best overall phone introduced in 2014.

    • Apple Watch - Apple Watch is often oversimplified as a mini iPhone that enables user to read emails, summon Siri and make and receive phone calls from their wrist.

    • Nintendo Wii U - Is the first Nintendo console to support high-definition graphics, capable of producing video output up to 1080p. The Wii U's primary controller is the Wii U GamePad, which features an embedded touch screen that is used to supplement the main gameplay shown on the television. It also contains a web browser which allows users to browse the web on the Wii U GamePad or on the television screen.

    • Roku 2 XS - A small 1080p HD streaming-media-to-TV box that offers streaming-video and-audio services, such as Netflix, Hulu Plus, Amazon Instant Video, HBO Go, Vudu, Pandora, Mog, and Rdio - plus motion-based gaming for an extra dose of entertainment.

    • Sony Cyber-shot RX100 - An enthusiast compact digital camera, 20.2 megapixel, 1" CMOS sensor, featuring, 20.2 megapixel, full HD video recording, and a Zeiss-branded 28-100mm equivalent F1.8-4.9 stabilized lens featuring Zeiss T coatings to minimize internal reflection.

    • Apple TV G3 - A small set-top box. Once connected to a TV using a HDMI cable and to a broadband router either wirelessly or via an Ethernet cable, it lets user rent a wide variety of TV shows

    • Maingear SHIFT Super Stock X79 System Review - A new generation of personal computer that is powerful, wicked fast, super attractive, and expensive.

    • Raspberry Pi Model B - Is a credit card-sized, Linux-based computer powered from a single microUSB socket, featuring a 700MHz ARM processor, 512MB RAM, SD card slot , Ethernet port, two USB 2.0 ports, HDMI output, and more.

    • Lytro - A camera lets user capture, share and see in a whole new way. It’s the first consumer camera that records the entire light field — all the rays of light traveling in every direction through a scene

    • Apple 15” MacBook Pro with Retina Display - A powerful Apple MacBook featuring 2.3GHz and 2.6GHz quad-core Intel Core i7 processors with 6MB of shared L3 cache and Turbo Boost speeds up to 3.6GHz.

    • Apple iMac 27" 2012 Edition - A powerful Apple iMac featuring a 2560x1440 and 1080p LED-backlit display, a 3.2GHz quad-core Intel Core i5 processor, 1TB of storage.

    • Dell XPS One 27 - A powerful Dell PC featuring a 2560x1440 native resolution, a Core i7-3770S, an Nvidia GeForce GT640M, and 8GB of DDR3/1600.

    • Microsoft Surface with Windows RT - The first Surface tablet comes with 64GB of storage, a 10.6-inch, five-point multi-touch screen, a innovative keyboard, Microsoft's Windows RT operating system, and a full copy of Microsoft Office 2013.

    • Google Nexus 4 - The Nexus 4 cell phone — a collaboration of Google and LG, represents the pinnacle of Android hardware and software featuring a 1280-by-768 4.7-inch display, 2GB of RAM, Google map, Google Play, a high-performance 8MP camera, HD video in full 1080p.

    • Samsung Galaxy S III GT-I9300 - The Galaxy S III comes with a 4.8-inch super Amoled screen with a resolution of 1280-by-720 pixels. It has some new features, such as Smart Stay, (eyes tracking), Direct Call (call number by directing it to the face).

    • Samsung Galaxy Note II - An Android smart phone marketed by Samsung comes with a large 720p resolution display, 5.55-inch (141 mm) measured diagonally, a 1.6 GHz quad-core processor, 2 GB of RAM, and storage capacity up to 128 GB, and software optimized for an integral self-storing stylus.

    • Nest Learning Thermostat 2nd Generation- The device remembers what temperatures you like, turns itself down when you're away, and can be controlled over Wi-Fi from your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, or Mac. Nest's Energy History shows you when your system was on and why, the Nest Leaf tells you when you’re saving energy, and the monthly Energy Report shows you trends in your energy use and tips to save more.

    • Western Digital WD TV Live Hub - A consumer media player that enables user to play videos, music, and photos on TV in brilliant high-definition by putting this personal media on the high-capacity built-in hard drive and stream it to any screen in the house.

    • Audioengine 5+ (A5+) Premium Powered Speakers - Delivers audiophile-quality sound and features at a price that continues to set the standard for affordable high-quality audio. Connect any iDevice, computer, TV, or any other audio component for great stereo sound in any room. Built-in power amplifiers save space and eliminate the need to connect Audioengine 5+ to a stereo receiver or external power amp. Simply plug the left speaker into an AC outlet and connect the included speaker wire from the left to right speaker..
    • Simple.TV - A personal DVR device that offers streaming-video and-audio services from the-air HD broadcasts and unencrypted cable TV, in either live or recorded form to iPad, PC, Mac or Roku box.

    • Apple's Second-Gen Tablet iPad 2 - iPad2 features a dual-core processor, a better screen, more RAM and storage, and a camera. It runs on both GSM and CDMA networks. Apple iPad 2 (Tablet) - At 8.8 mm, the iPad 2 is thinner, lighter (down from 1.5 lbs to 1.3 lbs) and faster than its predecessor. No improvements were made in the iPad 2's battery capacity, which still hovers at around ten hours. iPad 2 has around 500,000 applications in the market.

    • Samsung Galaxy 10.1 and 10.1v - The tablet features a large, wide-screen, sharp and bright display, weighs l1.25- 1.32 lbs, a dual-core 1GHz processor, 1 GB RAM, and Android 3.1 Honeycomb. The Galaxy Tab's alleged infringements of input gestures, such as 'pinching' which were innovated by Apple, have resulted in injunctions being granted preventing its sales in Australia.
    • Amazon Kindle Fire - The Kindle Fire is a 7-inch tablet that has a sharp, bright, hi-res screen, and a small storage with an affordable price. There are around 10,000 applications for Amazon's Kindle Fire.

    • Barnes & Noble Nook Table - The Nook tablet features a 7-inch, touch-sensitive with an extended battery life up to 11.5 hours of reading, or 9 hours of video, a faster processor and more memory for software operations (i.e.; faster Web browsing and magazine page-flipping when comparing with Amazon's Kindle Fire). There are around 1,000 applications for the Nook tablet.

    • Nikon D300s (Digital Camera) - Nikon D300s is the first digital camera that includes high-definition video capture with high quality built-in microphone, takes excellent photos and provides video output containing impressively smooth images.

    • Canon PowerShot SX200 IS (Digital Camera) - The camera creates gorgeous image quality and point-and-shoot convenience of Smart Auto, along with enhanced operability and an intuitive new menu. It provides wide-angle shots with stunning 12x optical zoom, HD shooting at 1280 x 720 pixels with HDMI output lets you see all the beauty of your HD images and movies on your HDTV.

    • Dell Latitude Z (Laptop) - Dell Latitude Z is the world's thinnest, lightest 16" laptop (a 16-inch screen, 0.57 inch thick, about 4.5 pounds with the standard 4-cell battery), featuring a premium design and innovative wireless and touch-sensor technology.

    • PlayStation- PlayStation 3is a popular graphical game conslole produced by Sony, with a cutting-edge Cell processor and a customized Nvidia graphics chip that could melt most gaming PCs. The PlayStation 3 is currently behind its competitor systems, the Wii and the Xbox 360, in total worldwide sales.

    • Xbox 360 - The Xbox 360 is the second video game console produced by Microsoft, and was developed in cooperation with IBM, AMD, and SiS. The integrated Xbox Live service allows players to compete online and download content from TV shows and movies.

    • Pioneer Kuro HDTV Plasma TV - Pioneer Plasma TV offers a perfect picture quality. It’s a world built on uncompromising attention to detail in an extraordinary, beautiful new way with deep, intense blacks for unmatched contrast.

    • iPhone - The Apple iPhone, which uses the GSM standard, has a stunning display, a sleek design, and an innovative multitouch user interface. The iPhone's functions include those of a camera phone, text messages, visual voicemail, and a portable media player ("iPod"). It also offers Internet services including e-mail, web browsing, and local Wi-Fi connectivity.

    • LG BH-100 Super Blu-ray- The Blu-ray Player BH-100 is essentially a Blu-ray Disc Player that can also play HD-DVDs with up–convert to 1080i via HDMI output. Combine it with a compatible 1080p HDTV and your senses will be enthralled by the ultimate in sound and picture quality.

    • iPod - The Apple iPod nano media player was introduced on September 7, 2005. It's the first Nano to play back video displayed on a colorful, 2-inch screen wih a combination of features of both the iPod shuffle and iPod classic.

    • Vudu - Vudu delivers instant access to HD films, TV shows, and approximately 5,000 movies, from blockbusters to independent films, with more added every week. This set-top box gives you instant access to thousands of movies--including brand-new DVD releases--for $1 to $4 for rental or $5 to $20 to buy.

    • Nintendo Wii - Nintendo Wii is a successor to the Nintendo GameCube targeted a broader demographic than that of Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Sony's PlayStation 3. Since its November 2006 release, the Wii has become a runaway hit, so popular that it remains difficult to find it in stock.

    • Nintendo DSi - Nintendo DSi, the third iteration of the Nintendo DS handheld, is about 12% thinner and with a larger screen (17%) than the Nintendo DS Lite. It has a CPU that is twice as fast as the one in the DS and DS Lite, 256 MB of internal flash memory, and digital cameras (16MB). The DSi was first released in Japan on November 1, 2008, and it is expected to be released in the US in Spring 2009.

    • Microsoft Zune MP3 Player - The Zune 120GB MP3, with a unique focus on music discovery, is a fierce competitor to the iPod Classic. It has great Wi-Fi and social music-discovery features supported for games and audio-books with friendly interface, good navigation control, high audio quality, audio-and video-podcast support, superlative FM radio, wireless syncing, and a built-in composite-video output.

    • Onkyo TX-SR875 A/V Receiver - Exceeding even the highest expectations, the TX-SR875 A/V surround sound receiver deserves all the accolades it gets.The foundations of the TX-SR875 are its isolated power amplifier block (which supports a dual push-pull amplification design) and preamplifier.

    History of Software
    The Most Influential Software Programmers of All Time

    Science & Famous Scientists
    Famous Inventors
  • Albert Einstein
  • George Antheil
  • Bruno Abakanowicz
  • Vitaly Abalakov
  • Hovannes Adamian
  • Robert Adler
  • Anatoly Alexandrov
  • Alexandre Alexeieff
  • Rostislav Alexeyev
  • Zhores Alferov
  • Genrich Altshuller
  • Hermann Anschütz-Kaempfe
  • Mary Anderson
  • Vasily Andreyev
  • Oleg Antonov
  • Nicolas Appert
  • Archimedes
  • Ami Argand
  • Edwin Howard Armstrong
  • William George Armstrong
  • Neil Arnott
  • Lev Artsimovich
  • Joseph Aspdin
  • John Vincent Atanasoff
  • Charles Babbage
  • Victor Babeș
  • Roger Bacon
  • Leo Baekeland
  • Ralph H. Baer
  • John Logie Baird
  • Donát Bánki
  • Ridgway Banks
  • Vladimir Baranov-Rossine
  • John Barber
  • John Bardeen
  • Vladimir Barmin
  • Anthony R. Barringer
  • Earl W. Bascom
  • Nikolay Basov
  • Eugen Baumann
  • Trevor Baylis
  • Francis Beaufort
  • Ernest Beaux
  • Arnold O. Beckman
  • Ulugh Beg
  • Vladimir Bekhterev
  • Alexander Graham Bell
  • Karl Benz
  • Alexander Bereznyak
  • Georgy Beriev
  • Emile Berliner
  • Nikolay Benardos
  • Tim Berners-Lee
  • Bi Sheng
  • Gerd Binnig
  • Laszlo Biro
  • Clarence Birdseye
  • Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī
  • J. Stuart Blackton
  • Otto Blathy
  • Fyodor Blinov
  • Katharine B. Blodgett
  • Alan Blumlein
  • Nils Bohlin
  • Joseph-Armand Bombardier
  • Sam Born
  • Satyendra Nath Bose
  • Jagdish Chandra Bose
  • George de Bothezat
  • Matthew Piers Watt Boulton
  • Robert W. Bower
  • Seth Boyden
  • Louis Braille
  • Jacques E. Brandenberger
  • Édouard Branly
  • Karl Ferdinand Braun
  • Stanislav Brebera
  • Harry Brearley
  • Sergey Brin
  • Mikhail Britnev
  • Rachel Fuller Brown
  • Wendell Brown
  • John Moses Browning
  • Maria Christina Bruhn
  • Nikolay Brusentsov
  • Edwin Beard Budding
  • Gersh Budker
  • Corliss Orville Burandt
  • Henry Burden
  • Richard James Burgess
  • Robert Cailliau
  • C`ai Lun
  • Marvin Camras
  • Chester Carlson
  • Wallace Carothers
  • Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi
  • Joseph Constantine Carpue
  • George Cayley
  • Roxey Ann Caplin
  • Octave Chanute
  • Dennis Charter
  • Vladimir Chelomey
  • Pavel Cherenkov
  • Adrian Chernoff
  • Evgeniy Chertovsky
  • Alexander Chizhevsky
  • Andrey Chokhov
  • Niels Christensen
  • Samuel Hunter Christie
  • Juan de la Cierva
  • Alexandru Ciurcu
  • Georges Claude
  • Henri Marie Coandă
  • Josephine Cochrane
  • Christopher Cockerell
  • Aeneas Coffey
  • Sir Henry Cole
  • Samuel Colt
  • George Constantinescu
  • Lloyd Groff Copeman
  • Cornelis Corneliszoon
  • Jacques Cousteau
  • Thomas Crapper
  • Bartolomeo Cristofori
  • János Csonka
  • Raul Cuero
  • Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot
  • William C. Cruikshank
  • Glenn Curtiss
  • John Wesley Hyatt
  • Gustaf Dalén
  • Salvino D'Armate
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • Corradino D'Ascanio
  • Jacob Davis
  • Edmund Davy
  • Humphry Davy
  • Joseph Day
  • Lee DeForest
  • Vasily Degtyaryov
  • Akinfiy Demidov
  • Yuri N. Denisyuk
  • Miksa Deri
  • James Dewar
  • Aleksandr Dianin
  • William Kennedy Dickson
  • Philip Diehl
  • Rudolf Diesel
  • Al-Dinawari
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